OGC Engineering Report

Engineering report for OGC Climate Resilience Pilot
Guy Schumann Editor Albert Kettner Editor Nils Hempelmann Editor
OGC Engineering Report


Document number:23-020r2
Document type:OGC Engineering Report
Document subtype:
Document stage:Published
Document language:English

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I.  Executive Summary

The OGC Climate Resilience Pilot marked the beginning of a series of enduring climate initiatives with the primary goal of evaluating the value chain encompassing raw data to climate information processes within Climate Resilience Information Systems. This includes the transformation of geospatial data into meaningful knowledge for various stakeholders, including decision-makers, scientists, policymakers, data providers, software developers, service providers, and emergency managers. The results of the OGC Climate Resilience Pilot support the location community to develop more powerful visualization and communication tools to accurately address ongoing climate threats such as heat, drought, floods, and wild-fires as well as supporting governments in meeting commitments for their climate strategies. This will be accomplished through evolving geospatial data, technologies, and other capabilities into valuable information for decision-makers, scientists, policymakers, data providers, software developers, and service providers so they can make valuable, informed decisions to improve climate action. One of the most significant challenges so far has been converting the outputs of global and regional climate models into specific impacts and risks at the local level. The climate science community has adopted standards and there are now numerous climate resilience information systems available online, allowing experts to exchange and compare data effectively. However, professionals outside the weather and climate domain, such as planners and GIS analysts working for agencies dealing with climate change impacts, have limited familiarity with and capacity to utilize climate data.

Stakeholders depend on meaningful information to make decisions or advance their science. In the context of climate change, this meaningful information is delivered through climate services as a combination of technical applications and human consultation. The technical infrastructures underpinning climate services, named here as Climate Resilience Information Systems, require the processing of vast amounts of data from diverse providers across various scientific ecosystems as follows.

This report assesses the value chain from raw data to climate information and the onward delivery to stakeholders. It explains good practices on how to design climate resilience information systems, identifies gaps, and gives recommendations on future work.

The OGC pilot demonstrated the capability of creating data pipelines to convert vast amounts of raw data through various steps into decision-ready information and 3D visualizations while embedding good practice approaches for communicating this knowledge to non-specialized individuals. In other words, in order to obtain decision-ready information, the data must first be collected from multiple sources and organized, then transformed into analysis-ready formats.

To address the value chain from raw data to decision-ready indicators, one focus of this pilot was to explore methods for extracting climate variables from climate model output scenarios and delivering them in formats that are more easily usable for post-processing experts, alongside being applicable to local situations and specific use-cases. Climate variable Data Cubes were extracted or aggregated into temporal and spatial ranges specific to the use cases. Then, the data structure was transformed from multidimensional gridded cubes into forms that can be readily utilized by geospatial applications. These pilot data flows serve as excellent examples of how climate data records can be translated into estimates of impacts and risk at the local level in a way that seamlessly integrates into existing planning workflows and is made available to a broad user community via open standards.

In addition, the pilot explored various parts of the processing pipelines that were examined using climate-impact case studies related to heat, droughts, floods, and wildfires, highlighting assessment tools and the complexities of climate indices. It also recognized the existence of solar radiation databases and web map services, emphasizing the need to enhance their accessibility and applicability at a national level to combat the effects of climate change by utilizing solar energy resources more efficiently. Ultimately, this Climate Resilience Pilot serves as a crucial asset for making well-informed decisions that bolster climate action. It particularly aids the location community in developing enhanced 3D visualization, simulation, and communication tools to effectively address prevalent climate change impacts or hazards caused by meteorological extreme events.

This report also demonstrates the workflow from data to 3D visualization, specifically for non-technical individuals. A chapter is dedicated to the options and challenges of applying artificial intelligence to establish a climate scenario digital twin where various scenarios of efficiencies of climate action can be simulated. These simulations can encompass the reduction of disaster risks through technical engineering. The concept of climate resilience is explored, not only considering the shift of meteorological phenomena but also accounting for land degradation and biodiversity loss. More specifically, the scenarios focus on understanding the effects of climate change on vegetation in the Los Angeles area. 3D landscape vegetation simulations are presented, demonstrating how different tree species adapt under changing climate conditions represented by a range of climate and policy scenarios over time.

The pilot acknowledges the significant challenges of effectively conveying information to decision-makers. This necessitates a thorough examination of communication methods. Consequently, a dedicated chapter emphasizes unique approaches to facilitate effective communication with non-technical individuals, who frequently hold responsibility for local climate resilience action strategies. The development and implementation of a stakeholder survey provides insight into the strengths and weaknesses of past adaptation processes and allows for the derivation of opportunities for improvement. By prioritizing communication, the pilot aims to bridge the gap between technical and non-technical stakeholders, ensuring accurate and comprehensive information transmission for the benefit of both sides. The addition of this chapter demonstrates the pilot’s aim to enhance communication strategies to foster improved decision-making in the realm of climate resilience.

Overall, this engineering report presents various workflow processes which illustrate the seamless exchange of data, models, and components, such as climate application packages, that emphasize the potential for optimization using OGC Standards.

In the context of climate and disaster resilience, this document greatly contributes to a comprehensive understanding of flood, drought, heat, and wildfire assessments offering insights into decision-making for climate actions, specifically addressing the enhancement of Climate Resilience Information Systems in line with FAIR Climate Services principles.

II.  Keywords

The following are keywords to be used by search engines and document catalogues.

Climate Resilience, data, ARD, component, use case, FAIR, Drought, Heat, Fire, Floods, Data cubes, Climate scenario, Impact, Risk, Hazard, DRI, Indicator

III.  Submitters

The various organizations and institutes that contribute to the Climate Resilience Pilot are described below.

Table — Contributors of this Climate Resilience Pilot

NameOrganizationRole or Summary of contribution
Guy SchumannRSS-HydroLead ER Editor
Albert KettnerRSS-Hydro/DFOLead ER Editor
Sacha LepretreCAE, Presagis (CAE Subsidiary)Use of AI DigitalTwin and Simulation for climate (5D Meta World demo with Laubwerk).
Timm DapperLaubwerk GmbH
Peng YueWuhan UniversityDatacube component
Zhe FangWuhan UniversityClimate ARD component
Hanwen XuWuhan UniversityDrought impact use cases
Dean HintzSafe Software, Inc.Climate Analysis Ready Data and Drought Indicator
Kailin OpaleychukSafe Software, Inc.Climate Analysis Ready Data and Drought Indicator
Samantha LavenderPixalytics LtdDevelopment of drought indicator
Andrew LavenderPixalytics LtdDevelopment of drought indicator
Jenny CocksPixalytics LtdDevelopment of drought indicator
Jakub P. WalawenderFreelance climate scientist and EO/GIS expertClimate ARD and solar radiation use case
Daniela Hohenwallner-RiesalpS GmbHCommunication with stakeholders
Hanna KrimmalpS GmbHCommunication with stakeholders
Hinnerk RiesalpS GmbHCommunication with stakeholders
Paul SchattanalpS GmbHCommunication with stakeholders
Jérôme Jacovella-St-LouisEcere CorporationDatacube API client and server
Patrick DionEcere CorporationDatacube API client and server
Eugene YuGMU
Gil HeoGMU
Glenn LaughlinPelagis Data SolutionsCoastal Resilience & Climate Adaptation
Tom LandryIntact Financial Corporation
Steve KoppEsriClimate services & web interface
Lain GrahamEsriClimate services & web interface
Nils HempelmannOGCClimate resilience Pilot Coordinator

III.A.  About alpS

alpS GmbH is an international engineering and consulting firm that supports companies, municipalities, and governments in sustainable development and in dealing with the consequences, opportunities, and risks of climate change. Over the past 20 years, alpS has worked with more than 250 municipalities and industrial partners on climate-related projects. alpS accompanied a large number of adaptation cycles from risk assessments to the implementation and evaluation of adaptation measures.


CAE is a high-tech company with a mission and vision focused on safety, efficiency, and readiness. As a technology company, CAE digitalizes the physical world, deploying simulation training and critical operations support solutions. Above all else, empowering pilots, airlines, defense and security forces, and healthcare practitioners to perform at their best every day, especially when the stakes are the highest. CAE represents 75 years of industry firsts—the highest-fidelity flight, future mission, and medical simulators, and personalized training programs powered by artificial intelligence. CAE invests time and resources into building the next generation of cutting-edge, digitally immersive training and critical operations solutions while keeping positive environmental, social, and governance (ESG) impact at the core of its mission. Presagis is part of CAE and is specialized in developing 3D Modeling & Simulation Software. Presagis has developed VELOCITY 5D (V5D), a Next Generation 3D Digital Twins Creation and Simulation geospatial platform leveraging artificial intelligence.

III.C.  About Ecere

Ecere is a small software company located in Gatineau, Québec, Canada. Ecere develops the GNOSIS cross-platform suite of geospatial software, including a map server, a Software Development Kit and a 3D visualization client. Ecere also develops the Free and Open Source Ecere cross-platform Software Development Kit, including a 2D/3D graphics engine, a GUI toolkit, an Integrated Development Environment and a compiler for the eC programming language. As a member of OGC, Ecere is an active contributor in several Standard Working Groups as co-chair and editor, and participated in several testbeds, pilots and code sprints. In particular, Ecere has been a regular contributor and an early implementer for several OGC API standards in its GNOSIS Map Server and GNOSIS Cartographer client, and is also active in the efforts to modernize the OGC CDB data store and OGC Styles & Symbology standard.

III.D.  About Esri

Esri is a leading provider of geographic information system (GIS) software, location intelligence, and mapping. Since 1969, Esri has supported customers (more than a half million organizations in over 200 countries) with geographic science and geospatial analytics, taking a geographic approach to problem-solving, brought to life by modern GIS technology. The ArcGIS platform includes an integrated system of desktop, web, and mobile software products and data committed to open science.

Within the context of this OGC engagement, Esri provides the full range of capabilities from CMIP climate data processing and publishing, spatial analysis for risk assessment, climate adaption and resilience, to web application development and science communication tools.

III.E.  About George Mason University (GMU)

George Mason University (GMU) is a public research university that conducts research and provides training to postdoctoral fellows, PhD candidates, and master’s students in Geospatial information science, remote sensing, satellite image analysis, geospatial data processing, Earth system science, geospatial interoperability and standards, geographic information systems, and other related subjects. GMU will contribute an ARD use-case.

III.F.  About Intact

Intact Financial Corporation (IFC) is the largest provider of Property & Casualty (P&C) insurance in Canada. IFC’s purpose is to help people, businesses, and society prosper in good times and be resilient in bad1. The company has been on the front lines of climate change for more than a decade – getting its customers back on track and adapted to change. As extreme weather is predicted to get worse over the next decade, Intact intends to double down on adjusting to this changing environment to become more well prepared for floods, wildfire, and extreme heat2.

With close to 500 experts in data, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and pricing, the Intact Data Lab has deployed almost 300 AI models in production to date, focussing on improving risk selection and making operations as efficient as possible while creating outstanding interactions with customers. Within Intact’s Data Lab, the Centre for Climate and Geospatial Analytics (CCGA) uses weather, climate, and geospatial data along with machine learning models and claims data to develop risk maps and other specialized products.

III.G.  About Laubwerk

Laubwerk is a software development company whose mission is to combine accurate, broadly applicable visualizations of vegetation with deeper information and utility that goes far beyond their visual appearance. Laubwerk achieves this through building a database that combines ultra-realistic 3D representations of plants with extensive metadata that represents plant properties. This unique combination makes Laubwerk a prime partner to bridge the gap from data-driven simulation to eye-catching visualizations.

III.H.  About Pixalytics Ltd

Pixalytics Ltd is an independent consultancy company specializing in Earth Observation (EO) combining cutting-edge scientific knowledge with satellite and airborne data to provide answers to questions about EArth’s resources and behavior. The underlying work includes developing algorithms and software, with activities including a focus on EO quality control and end-user focused applications.

III.I.  About Pelagis

Pelagis is an OceanTech venture located in Nova Scotia, Canada focusing on the application of open geospatial technology and standards designed to promote the sustainable use of ocean resources. As a member of the Open Geospatial Consortium, Pelagis co-chairs the Marine Domain Working Group responsible for developing a spatially-aware federated service model of marine and coastal ecosystems.

III.J.  About RSS-Hydro

RSS-Hydro is a geospatial solutions and service company focusing its R&D and commercial products in the area of water risks, with a particular emphasis on the SDGs. RSS-Hydro has been part of several successful OGC testbeds, including the DP 21 to which this pilot is linked, not only in terms of ARD and IRD but also in terms of use cases. In this pilot, RSS-Hydro’s main contribution is the lead of the Engineering report. In terms of technical contributions to various other OGC testbeds and pilots, RSS-Hydro is creating digestible OGC data types and formats for specific partner use cases, in particular producing ARD from publicly available EO and model data, including hydrological model output as well as climate projections. These ARD will feed into all use cases for all participants, especially use cases proposed for floods, heat, drought and health impacts by other participants in the pilot. The created ARD in various OGC interoperable formats will create digestible dataflows for the proposed OGC Use Cases.

Specifically, RSS-Hydro can provide access to the following satellite and climate projection data.

  • Wildfire: Fire Radiant Power (FRP) product from Sentinel 3 (NetCDF), 5p, MODIS products (fire detection), VIIRS (NOAA); possibly biomass availability (fire fuel)

  • Land Surface Temp: Sentinel 3

  • Pollution: Sentinel 5p

  • Climate Projection data (NetCDF, etc., daily downscaled possible): air temp (10 m above ground) with rainfall and possibly wind direction as well

  • Satellite-derived Discharge Data to look at droughts/floods etc. by basin or other scale

  • Hydrological model simulation outputs at (sub)basin scale

III.K.  About Safe Software

Safe Software is a leader in supporting geospatial interoperability and automation for more than 25 years as creators of the FME platform. FME was created to promote FAIR principles, including data sharing across barriers and silos, with unparalleled support for a wide array of both vendor specific formats and open standards. Within this platform, Safe Software provides a range of tools to support interoperability workflows. FME Form is a graphical authoring environment that allows users to rapidly prototype transformation workflows in a no-code environment. FME Flow then allows users to publish data transforms to enterprise oriented service architectures. FME Hosted offers a low cost, easy to deploy, and scalable environment for deploying transformation and integration services to the cloud.

Open standards have always been a core strategy for Safe Software to better support data sharing. The FME platform can be seen as a bridge between the many supported vendor protocols and open standards such as XML, JSON, and OGC standards such as GML, KML, WMS, WFS, and OGC APIs. Safe Software has collaborated extensively over the years with the open standards community. Safe Software actively participates in the CityGML and INSPIRE communities in Europe and is also active within the OGC community and participated in many initiatives including test beds, pilots such as Maritime Limits and Boundaries and IndoorGML, and most recently the 2021 Disaster Pilot and 2023 Climate Resilience Pilot. Safe Software also actively participates in a number of Domain and Standards working groups.

III.L.  About Jakub P. Walawender

Jakub P. Walawender is a freelance climate scientist and EO/GIS expert carrying out his PhD research on the solar radiation climatology of Poland at the Laboratory for Climatology and Remote Sensing (LCRS), Faculty of Geography, Philipps University in Marburg, Germany. Jakub specializes in the application of satellite remote sensing, GIS, and geostatistics in the monitoring and analysis of climate variability and extremes and supports users in the application of different climate data records to tackle the effects of climate change.

III.M.  About Wuhan University (WHU)

Wuhan University (WHU) is a university that plays a significant role in researching and teaching all aspects of surveying and mapping, remote sensing, photogrammetry, and geospatial information sciences in China. In this Climate Resilience Pilot, WHU will contribute three components (ARD, Drought Indicator, and Data Cube) and one use-case (Drought Impact Use-cases).

1.  Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms

No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

Carrying Capacity

an area both suitable and available for human activity based on the state of the ecosystem and competitive pressures for shared resources


an open standardized data model and exchange format to store digital 3D models of cities and landscapes

Data Cube

In computer programming contexts, a data cube (or datacube) is a multi-dimensional (“n-D”) array of values. Typically, the term data cube is applied in contexts where these arrays are massively larger than the hosting computer’s main memory; examples include multi-terabyte/petabyte data warehouses and time series of image data.

FAIR Climate Service

a climate resilience information system where the entire architecture follows FAIR principles

FAIR principles3

the concept of making digital assets Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable


the ability of a system to compensate impacts

Sentinel (satellite mission)

a series of next-generation Earth observation missions developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) on behalf of the joint ESA/European Commission initiative Copernicus

1.1.  Abbreviated terms


Atmospheric Composition Data Cube


Attribute Convention for Data Discovery


Applied Climate Information System


Application Deployment and Execution Service


Atmosphere Data Store


Application Package


Application Programming Interface


Assessment Report


Analysis Ready Data


Analysis Ready Data Cube


Amazon Web Service


Bias Corrected Spatially Downscaled


Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function


Copernicus Climate Change Service


Climate Change Initiative


Combined Drought Indicator


Climate Data Record


Climate Data Store


Committee on Earth Observation Satellites


Climate and Forecast


Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites


Canadian Integrated Ocean Observing System


Coupled Model Intercomparison Project


Common Metadata Repository


Climate Mapping for Resilience and Adaptation


Cloud Optimized Geotiff


Climate Resilience Information System


Climate Mapping for Resilience and Adaptation


Comma-Separated Values


CEOS WGISS Integrated Catalog


Digital Elevation Model


Decision Ready Indicator


Drought Severity Workflow


Domain Working Group


European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts


Essential Climate Variable


Environmental Data Retrieval


European Forest Fire Information System


Exploitation Platform Management Service


Earth Observation


Engineering Report


fifth generation ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis of the global climate


European Space Agency


Earth System Data Cube


Earth System Data Laboratory


Earth Science Information Partners


European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites


Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable


Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation


Feature Manipulation Engine


Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial


Fire Radiant Power


Fire Weather Index


General Circulation Model


Global Climate Observing System


Global Drought Observatory


Gross Domestic Product


Greenhouse Gasses


Geography Markup Language


George Mason University


Global Ocean Observing System


Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment


Hierarchical Data Format


International Finance Corporation


International Hydrographic Organization


Institute of Meteorology and Water Management4


Integrated Ocean Observing System


Internet of Things


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change


Joined Research Center


JavaScript Object Notation


Keyhole Markup Language


Laboratory for Climatology and Remote Sensing


Land Degradation Neutrality


Localized Constructed Analogs


Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications


Machine Learning / Artificial Intelligence


Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer


Marine Spatial Data Infrastructures


National Aeronautics and Space Administration


National Climate Assessment 4


National Center for Atmospheric Research


Normalized Difference Vegetation Index


Normalized Difference Water Index


Network Common Data Form


National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration


Natural Resources Canada


Open Geospatial Consortium


Open Geospatial Engine


OGC Observations & Measurements 3.0


Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol




Quantum Geographic Information System


Regional Climate Indicator


Regional Climate Model


Representative Concentration Pathway


Representational State Transfer


Simple Storage Service


Sustainable Development Goal


Soil Moisture Anomaly


Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index


Standardized Precipitation Index


Structured Query Language


Surface Reflectance


Secure Sockets Layer


SpatioTemporal Asset Catalogs


Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services


Technical Interoperability Experiments


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


Uniform Resource Locator


United States Geological Survey


Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite


Web Coverage Service


Wide Field View

WG Climate

Joint Working Group on Climate


Working Group on Information Systems and Services


Wildland-Human Interface


Wuhan University


Web Map Service


Web Processing Service


Wildland-Urban Interface


Extensible Markup Language

2.  Introduction

The OGC Climate Resilience Pilot represents the first phase of multiple long term climate activities aiming to combine geospatial data, technologies, and other capabilities into valuable information for decision makers, scientists, policy makers, data providers, software developers, and service providers to assist in making valuable, informed decisions to improve climate action.

2.1.  The goal of the pilot

The goal of this pilot was to enable decision makers (scientists, city managers, politicians, etc.) in taking the relevant actions to address climate change and make well informed decisions for climate change adaptation. Since no single organization has all the data needed to understand the consequences of climate change, this pilot shows how to use data from multiple organizations—​available at different scales for large and small areas—​in scientific processes, analytical models, and simulation environments. The aim was to demonstrate visualization and communication tools used to craft the message in the best way for any client. Many challenges can be met through resources that adhere to FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable) principles. The OGC Climate Resilience Pilot identifies, discusses, and develops these resources.

The goal was to help the location community develop more powerful visualization and communication tools to accurately address ongoing climate threats such as heat, drought, floods, and fires as well as supporting nationally determined targets for greenhouse gas emission reduction. Climate resilience is often considered the use case of our lifetime; the OGC community is uniquely positioned to accelerate solutions through collective problem solving with this initiative.


Figure 1 — Value chain from raw data to climate information

As illustrated, large sets of raw data from multiple sources require further processing in order to be used for analysis and climate change impact assessments. Applying data enhancement steps, such as bias adjustments, re-gridding, or calculation of climate indicators and essential variables creates “Decision Ready Indicators.” The spatial data infrastructures required for this integration should be designed with interoperable application packages following FAIR data principles. Heterogeneous data from multiple sources can be enhanced, adjusted, refined, or quality controlled to provide Science Services data products for Climate Resilience. The OGC Climate resilience pilot also illustrates the graphical exploration of the Decision Ready Indicators and effectively demonstrates how to design FAIR climate resilience information systems underpinning FAIR Climate Services. The OGC Pilot participants illustrate the necessary tools and the visualizations to address climate actions moving towards climate resilience.

The vision of the OGC Climate Resilience Community is to support efforts on climate actions, enable international partnerships (SDG 17), and move towards global interoperable open digital infrastructures providing climate resilience information on demand by users. This pilot contributes to establishing an OGC climate resilience concept store for the community where all appropriate climate information to build climate resilience information systems as open infrastructures can be found in one place, be it information about data services, tools, software, or handbooks, or a place to discuss experiences and needs. It covers all phases of Climate Resilience from initial hazards identification and mapping, vulnerability and risk analysis, options assessments, prioritization, and planning, to implementation planning and monitoring capabilities. These major challenges can only be met through the combined efforts of many OGC members across government, industry, and academia.

2.2.  Objectives

This Pilot set the stage for a series of follow up activities and focuses on use-case development, implementation, and exploration. It also answers the following questions.

  • What use-cases can be realized with the data, services, analytical functions, and visualization capabilities currently available? Current data services include, for example, the Copernicus Services, including Climate Data Store (CDS) and Atmosphere Data Store (ADS)

  • How much effort is required to realize these use-cases?

  • What is missing, or needs to be improved, in order to transfer the use-cases developed in the pilot to other areas?

The pilot had three objectives:

  • to better understand what is currently possible with the available data and technology;

  • to determine what additional data and technology need to be developed in the future to better meet the needs of the Climate Resilience Community; and

  • to capture Best Practices and allow the Climate Community to copy and transform as many use-cases as possible to other locations or framework conditions.

2.3.  Background

With growing local communities, an increase in climate-driven disasters, and an increasing risk of future natural hazards, the demand for National Resilience Frameworks and Climate Resilience Information Systems (CRISs) cannot be overstated. CRISs are enabling data-search, -fetch, -fusion, -processing, and -visualization enabling access, understanding, and use of federal data, facilitating integration of federal and state data with local data, and serving as local information hubs for climate resilience knowledge sharing.

CRISs already exist and are operational, such as the Copernicus Climate Change Service with the Climate Data Store. CRIS architectures can be further enhanced by providing scientific methods and visualization capabilities as climate application packages. Based on FAIR principles, these application packages enable the reusability of CRIS features and capabilities. Reusability is an essential component when goals, expertise, and resources are aligned from the national to the local level. Framework conditions differ across nations, but application packages enable as much reuse of existing Best Practices, tools, data, and services as possible.

Goals and objectives of decision makers vary at different scales. At the municipal level, leaders and citizens directly face climate-related hazards. Aspects thus come into focus, such as reducing vulnerability and risk, building resilience through local measures, or enhancing emergency response. At the state level, the municipal efforts can be coordinated and supported by providing funding and enacting relevant policies. The national, federal, and international levels provide funding, data, and international coordination to enable the best analyses and decisions at the lower scales.