Approved

OGC Standard

OGC GeoSPARQL - A Geographic Query Language for RDF Data
Nicholas J. Car Editor Timo Homburg Editor Matthew Perry Editor Frans Knibbe Editor Simon J.D. Cox Editor Joseph Abhayaratna Editor Mathias Bonduel Editor Paul J. Cripps Editor Krzysztof Janowicz Editor
Version: 1.1
OGC Standard

Approved

Document number:22-047r1
Document type:OGC Standard
Document subtype:Profile
Document stage:Approved
Document language:English

License Agreement

Use of this document is subject to the license agreement at https://www.ogc.org/license

Suggested additions, changes and comments on this document are welcome and encouraged. Such suggestions may be submitted using the online change request form on OGC web site: http://ogc.standardstracker.org/




I.  Abstract

GeoSPARQL contains a small spatial domain OWL ontology that allow literal representations of geometries to be associated with spatial features and for features to be associated with other features using spatial relations.

GeoSPARQL also contains SPARQL extension function definitions that can be used to calculate relations between spatial objects.

Several other supporting assets are also contained within GeoSPARQL such as vocabularies of Simple Feature types and data validators.

The namespace for the GeoSPARQL ontology is http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#

The suggested prefix for this namespace is geo

The namespace for the GeoSPARQL functions is http://www.opengis.net/def/function/geosparql/

The suggested prefix for this namespace is geof


II.  Preface

The OGC GeoSPARQL Standard defines:

This document authoritatively defines many of the Standard’s elements, including the ontology classes and properties, SPARQL functions, and function and rule vocabulary concepts. Complete descriptions of the Standard’s parts and their roles are given in the Introduction in the section Clause 7.3.

III.  Security considerations

No security considerations have been made for this document.

IV.  Submitters

All questions regarding this submission should be directed to the editor or the submitters:

ContactCompany
Simon J.D. CoxCSIRO
Panagiotis (Peter) A. VretanosCubewerx Inc.
Paul CrippsDSTL
Linda van den BrinkGeonovum
Joseph AbhayaratnaGeoscape Australia
Irina BastrakovaGeoscience Australia
Timo HomburgMainz University Of Applied Sciences
Matthew PerryOracle America
Nicholas J. CarSURROUND Australia Pty Ltd.

V.  Keywords

Open Geospatial Consortium, OGC, spatial, ontology, Knowledge Graph, Semantic Web, Linked Data, RDF, Resource Description Framework, Web Ontology Language, OWL, SPARQL, Simple Features, feature, geometry

VI.  Clarifications

VII.  Changes to the OGC® Abstract Specification

The OGC® Abstract Specification does not require changes to accommodate this OGC® standard.

VIII.  Submitting organizations

The following organizations submitted this Implementation Standard to the Open Geospatial Consortium Inc.:

1.  Scope

The OGC GeoSPARQL Standard is comprised of multiple parts. See the Introduction section Clause 7.3 for details of the parts.

GeoSPARQL does not define a comprehensive vocabulary for representing spatial information. Instead GeoSPARQL defines a core set of classes, properties and datatypes that can be used to construct query patterns. Many useful extensions to this vocabulary are possible, and we intend for the Semantic Web and Geospatial communities to develop additional vocabularies for describing spatial information.

2.  Conformance

Conformance with this Standard shall be checked using all the relevant tests specified in [Abstract_Test_Suite__normative_]. The framework, concepts, and methodology for testing, and the criteria to be achieved to claim conformance are specified in ISO 19105: Geographic information — Conformance and Testing[ISO19105].

This document establishes many individual Requirements and Conformance Classes which contain tests for one or more Requirements. GeoSPARQL implementations need not conform to all Conformance Classes but must state which individual ones they do conform to. GeoSPARQL implementations claiming conformance to a Conformance Class must pass all the tests defined for it in [Abstract_Test_Suite__normative_].

Requirements and Conformance Class tests have IRIs that are relative to versioned namespace IRIs. Requirements and Conformance Class tests that are defined in GeoSPARQL 1.0 have IRIs relative to http://www.opengis.net/spec/geosparql/1.0/ and those added in GeoSPARQL 1.1 have IRIs relative to http://www.opengis.net/spec/geosparql/1.1/.

Many Conformance Classes are parameterized, and any parameters are explained in the detailed clauses for those Conformance Classes.

Table 1 — Conformance Classes

Conformance ClassDescriptionSubclause of the abstract test suite
CoreDefines top-level spatial vocabulary componentsConformance class A.1: /conf/core
Topology Vocabulary Extension (relation_family)Defines topological relation vocabularyConformance class A.2: /conf/topology-vocab-extension
Geometry Extension (serialization, version)Defines geometry vocabulary and non-topological query functionsConformance class A.3: /conf/geometry-extension
Geometry Extension — DGGSDefines the properties and functions of the Geometry Extension Conformance Classes for use with Discrete Global Grid System geometry representationsConformance class A.4: /conf/geometry-extension-dggs
Geometry Topology Extension (serialization, version, relation_family)Defines topological query functions for geometry objectsConformance class A.5: /conf/geometry-topology-extension
RDFS Entailment Extension (serialization, version , relation_family)Defines a mechanism for matching implicit RDF triples that are derived based on RDF and RDFS semanticsConformance class A.6: /conf/rdfs-entailment-extension
Query Rewrite Extension (serialization, version, relation_family)Defines query transformation rules for computing spatial relations between spatial objects based on their associated geometriesConformance class A.7: /conf/query-rewrite-extension

Dependencies between each GeoSPARQL Conformance Class are shown below in Figure 2. To support a Conformance Class for a given set of parameter values, an implementation must support each dependent Conformance Class with the same set of parameter values.

Figure 1 — Requirements Class Dependency Graph

3.  Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO: ISO 19125-1, Geographic information — Simple feature access — Part 1: Common architecture. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva https://www.iso.org/standard/40114.html.

ISO: ISO 19156, Geographic information — Observations, measurements and samples. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva https://www.iso.org/standard/82463.html.

M. Duerst, M. Suignard: IETF RFC 3987, Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs). RFC Publisher (2005). https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3987.

World Wide Web Consortium: OWL 2 Web Ontology Language Document Overview (Second Edition), W3C Recommendation (11 December 2012). https://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/

World Wide Web Consortium: RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax, W3C Recommendation (25 February 2014). https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11-concepts/

World Wide Web Consortium: RDF Schema 1.1, W3C Recommendation (25 February 2014). https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/

World Wide Web Consortium: RIF Core Dialect (Second Edition), W3C Recommendation (5 February 2013) http://www.w3.org/TR/rif-core/

World Wide Web Consortium: SPARQL 1.1 Query Language, W3C Recommendation (21 March 2013). https://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/

World Wide Web Consortium: SPARQL 1.1 Entailment Regimes, W3C Recommendation (21 March 2013). https://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-entailment/

World Wide Web Consortium: SPARQL 1.1 Protocol, W3C Recommendation (21 March 2013) http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-protocol/

World Wide Web Consortium: SPARQL Query Results XML Format (Second Edition), W3C Recommendation (21 March 2013). https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-XMLres/

World Wide Web Consortium: SPARQL 1.1 Query Results JSON Format, W3C Recommendation (21 March 2013). http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-results-json/

4.  Terms and definitions

This document uses the terms defined in OGC Policy Directive 49, which is based on the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, Rules for the structure and drafting of International Standards. In particular, the word “shall” (not “must”) is the verb form used to indicate a requirement to be strictly followed to conform to this document and OGC documents do not use the equivalent phrases in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

This document also uses terms defined in the OGC Standard for Modular specifications (OGC 08-131r3), also known as the ‘ModSpec’. The definitions of terms such as standard, specification, requirement, and conformance test are provided in the ModSpec.

For the purposes of this document, the following additional terms and definitions apply.

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in the above normative references apply, as well as those reproduced or created in this section.

4.1.  Semantic Web

The following terms and their definitions relate to Semantic Web models, tools and methods.

4.1.1. RDF

The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a framework for representing information in the Web. RDF graphs are sets of subject-predicate-object triples, where the elements may be IRIs, blank nodes, or datatyped literals. They are used to express descriptions of resources. RDF

4.1.2. RDFS

RDF Schema provides a data-modelling vocabulary for RDF data. RDF Schema is an extension of the basic RDF vocabulary. RDFS

4.1.3. OWL

The OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, informally OWL 2, is an ontology language for the Semantic Web with formally defined meaning. OWL 2 ontologies provide classes, properties, individuals, and data values and are stored as Semantic Web documents. OWL 2 ontologies can be used along with information written in RDF, and OWL 2 ontologies themselves are primarily exchanged as RDF documents. OWL2

4.1.4. SPARQL

SPARQL is a query language for RDF. The results of SPARQL queries can be result sets or RDF graphs. SPARQL

4.2.  spatial

The following terms and their definitions relate to spatial science and data.

4.2.1. coordinate system

A coordinate system is a set of mathematical rules for specifying how coordinates are to be assigned to points.

4.2.2. coordinate reference system

A coordinate reference system (CRS) is a coordinate system that is related to an object by a datum.

4.2.3. datum

A datum is a parameter or set of parameters that define the position of the origin, the scale, and the orientation of a coordinate system.

4.2.4. discrete global grid system

A discrete global grid system (DGGS) is a spatial reference system that represents the Earth, or any other globe-like object, with a tessellation of nested cells. Generally, a DGGS will exhaustively partition the globe in closely packed hierarchical tessellations, each cell representing a homogenous value, with a unique identifier or indexing that allows for linear ordering, parent-child operations, and nearest neighbor algebraic operations.

4.2.5. spatial reference system

A spatial reference system (SRS) is a system for establishing spatial position. A spatial reference system can use geographic identifiers (place names, for example), coordinates (in which case it is a coordinate reference system), or identifiers with structured geometry (in which case it is a discrete global grid system).

6.  Conventions

6.1.  Symbols and abbreviated terms

In this specification, the following common acronyms are used:

CRSCoordinate Reference System
DGGSDiscrete Global Grid System
GeoJSONGeographic JavaScript Object Notation
GFMGeneral Feature Model (as defined in ISO 19109)
GISGeographic Information System
GMLGeography Markup Language
IRIInternationalized Resource Identifier
KMLKeyhole Markup Language
OWLOWL 2 Web Ontology Language
RCCRegion Connection Calculus
RDFResource Description Framework
RDFSRDF Schema
RIFRule Interchange Format
SPARQLSPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language
SQLStructured Query Language
SRSSpatial Reference System
URIUniversal Resource Identifier
WKTWell Known Text (as defined by Simple Features or ISO 19125)
W3CWorld Wide Web Consortium (https://www.w3.org)
XMLExtensible Markup Language

6.3.  Placeholder IRIs

All of these namespace prefixes in the previous section resolve to resources that contain their namespace content except for eg: (http://example.com/), which is used just for examples, and ogc: (http://www.opengis.net/), which is used in requirement specifications as a placeholder for the geometry literal serialization used in a fully-qualified conformance class, e.g. <http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#wktLiteral>.

6.4.  RDF Serializations

Three RDF serializations are used in this document. Terse RDF Triple Language (turtle) TURTLE is used for RDF snippets placed within the main body of the document, and turtle, JSON-LD JSON-LD & RDF/XML RDFXML is used for the examples in Annex C.

7.  Introduction

The W3C Semantic Web Activity defines a collection of technologies that enables a “web of data” where information is easily shared and reused across applications. Some key pieces of this technology stack are the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model RDF, RDFS, the OWL Web Ontology Language OWL2 and the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language SPARQL.

7.1.  RDF

RDF is, among other things, a data model built on edge-node “graphs.” Each link in a graph consists of three elements (with many aliases depending on the mapping from other types of data models):

  • Subject (start node, instance, entity, feature);

  • Predicate (verb, property, attribute, relation, member, link, reference); and

  • Object (value, end node, non-literal values can be used as a Subject).

Any of the three values in a triple can be represented with an Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) [IETF3987], which globally and uniquely identifies the resource referenced. IRIs are an extension to Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) that allow for non-ASCII characters. In addition to functioning as identifiers, IRIs are usually, but not necessarily, resolvable. This means a person or machine can “dereference” them (click on them or otherwise execute them) and be taken to more information about the resource, perhaps in a web browser.

Subjects and objects within an RDF triple are called nodes and can also be represented with a blank node (a local identifier without meaning outside the graph it is defined within). Objects can further be represented with a literal value. RDF uses the basic literal values from XML XSD2 however the basic types can be extended for specialized purposes. Indeed, this document extends the basic types to include geometry data. The figure below shows a basic triple.

RDF Triple

Figure 2 — An RDF Triple

Note that the same node may be a subject in some triples, and an object in others.

Almost all data can be presented or represented in RDF. In particular, there are similarities to the (feature-instance-by-id, attribute, value) tuples of the General Feature Model ISO19109, and to the relational model as well (table primary key, column, value).

7.2.  SPARQL

From SPARQL:

SPARQL …​ is a set of specifications that provide languages and protocols to query and manipulate RDF graph content on the Web or in an RDF store.

From Wikipedia1:

SPARQL (pronounced “sparkle”, a recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language) is an RDF query language — that is, a semantic query language for databases — able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework (RDF) format. It was made a standard by the RDF Data Access Working Group (DAWG) of the World Wide Web Consortium, and is recognized as one of the key technologies of the semantic web. On 15 January 2008, SPARQL 1.0 was acknowledged by W3C as an official recommendation, and SPARQL 1.1 in March, 2013.

SPARQL queries work on RDF representations of data by finding patterns that match templates in the query, in effect finding information graphs in the RDF data based on the templates and filters (constraints on nodes and edges) expressed in the query. This query template is represented in the SPARQL query by a set of parameterized “query variables” appearing in a sequence of RDF triples and filters. If the query processor finds a set of triples in the data (converted to an RDF graph in some predetermined standard manner) then the values that the “query variables” take on in those triples become a solution to the query request. The values of the variables are returned in the query result in a format based on the “SELECT” clause of the query (similar to SQL).

In addition to predicates defined in this manner, the SPARQL query may contain filter functions that can be used to further constrain the query. Several mechanisms are available to extend filter functions to allow for predicates calculated directly on data values. Section 17.62 of the SPARQL specification SPARQL describes the mechanism for invocation of such a filter function.

The OGC GeoSPARQL Standard supports representing and querying geospatial data on the Semantic Web. GeoSPARQL defines a vocabulary for representing geospatial data in RDF. It also defines extensions to the SPARQL query language for processing geospatial data.

GeoSPARQL does not directly provide support for temporality. Predicates for temporal relations may be used from the OWL Time Ontology TIME, but query extension functions for spatiotemporal operations are not present in the GeoSPARQL standard.

7.3.  GeoSPARQL Standard structure

The GeoSPARQL Standard consists of multiple parts, or profile resources. The comprehensive listing of these parts is given in the GeoSPARQL profile definition, (see http://www.opengis.net/def/geosparql). Below is an overview of the major parts:

  1. profile definition

    • http://www.opengis.net/def/geosparql

    • Formally defined as an ontology, defined according to the Profiles VocabularyPROF;

    • This relates the parts in the standard together, provides access to them, and declares dependencies on other standards.

  2. Standard document (this document)

  3. Domain model RDF/OWL RDF,OWL2 ontology

  4. Functions & Rules vocabulary

  5. Simple Features vocabulary

  6. SPARQL extension functions defined within this document.

  7. RDF data validator

  8. SPARQL 1.1 Service description for GeoSPARQL

  9. Extended Examples

This document follows a modular design and contains the following components:

  • A core component defining the top-level RDFS/OWL classes for spatial objects.

  • A topology vocabulary component defining the RDF properties for asserting and querying topological relationships between spatial objects.

  • A geometry component defining RDFS data types for serializing geometry data, geometry-related RDF properties, and non-topological spatial query functions for geometry objects.

  • A geometry topology component defining topological query functions.

  • An RDFS entailment component defining mechanisms for matching implicit RDF triples that are derived based on RDF and RDFS semantics.

  • A query rewrite component defining rules for transforming a simple triple pattern that tests a topological relationship between two features into an equivalent query involving concrete geometries and topological query functions.

Each of these components forms a set of Requirements known as a GeoSPARQL Conformance Class. Implementations can provide various levels of functionality by choosing which Conformance Classes to support. For example, a system based purely on qualitative spatial reasoning may support only the core and topological vocabulary Classes.

In addition, GeoSPARQL is designed to accommodate systems based on qualitative spatial reasoning and systems based on quantitative spatial computations. Systems based on qualitative spatial reasoning, (e.g., those based on Region Connection Calculus QUAL, LOGIC) do not usually model explicit geometries, so queries in such systems will likely test for binary spatial relationships between features rather than between explicit geometries. To allow queries for spatial relationships between features in quantitative systems, GeoSPARQL defines a series of query transformation rules that expand a feature-only query into a geometry-based query. With these transformation rules, queries about spatial relationships between features will have the same specification in both qualitative systems and quantitative systems. The qualitative system will likely evaluate the query with a backward-chaining spatial “reasoner”, and the quantitative system can transform the query into a geometry-based query that can be evaluated with computational geometry.

8.  Core

This clause establishes the Core Requirements class, with IRI /req/core, which has a corresponding Conformance Class, Core, with IRI /conf/core. These Requirements define a set of classes and properties for representing geospatial data. The resulting vocabulary — an ontology — can be used to construct SPARQL graph patterns for querying appropriately modeled geospatial data. The RDFS and OWL vocabularies have both been used so that the vocabulary can be understood by systems that support only RDFS entailment and by systems that support OWL-based reasoning.

The figure below gives an overview of the classes and properties defined by GeoSPARQL in the Core, Topology Vocabulary Extension and Geometry Extension, Geometry Topology Extension and RDFS Entailment Extension Conformance Classes.

GeoSPARQL Ontology overview

Figure 3 — An overview of the Classes and Properties defined in GeoSPARQL. Where specific Classes and Properties are indicated, the prefixed forms of their ontology identifiers (IRIs) are given. Where types or collections of properties are given, they are described in italics. Where unspecified Classes are given, they are represented with a question mark. For cardinalities and other ontology restrictions, see the ontology document. Subproperties of geo:hasSize, its metric equivalent and geo:hasSerialization are not shown for clarity.

8.1.  SPARQL

Requirement 1: SPARQL Protocol

Identifier/req/core/sparql-protocol
Statement

Implementations shall support the SPARQL Query Language for RDF SPARQL, the SPARQL Protocol SPARQLPROT and the SPARQL Query Results XML SPARQLRESX and JSON SPARQLRESJ Formats.

8.2.  Classes

Two main classes are defined: geo:SpatialObject and geo:Feature.

Two container classes are defined: Spatial Object Collection and Feature Collection.

8.2.1.  Class: geo:SpatialObject

The class geo:SpatialObject is defined by the following:

geo:SpatialObject
    a rdfs:Class, owl:Class ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "Spatial Object"@en ;
    skos:definition "Anything spatial (being or having a shape, position or an extent)."@en ;
    skos:note "Subclasses of this class are expected to be used for instance data."@en ;
.

Requirement 2: Spatial Object Class

Identifier/req/core/spatial-object-class
Statement

Implementations shall allow the RDFS class geo:SpatialObject to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

Example:

eg:x
    a geo:SpatialObject ;
     skos:prefLabel "Object X";
.

8.2.2.  Class: geo:Feature

The class geo:Feature is equivalent to the class GFI_FeatureISO 19156 and is defined by the following:

geo:Feature
    a rdfs:Class, owl:Class ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "Feature"@en ;
    rdfs:subClassOf geo:SpatialObject ;
    owl:disjointWith geo:Geometry ;
    skos:definition "A discrete spatial phenomenon in a universe of discourse."@en ;
    skos:note "A Feature represents a uniquely identifiable phenomenon, for example
              a river or an apple. While such phenomena (and therefore the Features
              used to represent them) are bounded, their boundaries may be crisp
              (e.g., the declared boundaries of a state), vague (e.g., the
              delineation of a valley versus its neighboring mountains), and change
              with time (e.g., a storm front). While discrete in nature, Features
              may be created from continuous observations, such as an isochrone
              that determines the region that can be reached by ambulance within
              5 minutes."@en ;
.

Requirement 3: Feature Class

Identifier/req/core/feature-class
Statement

Implementations shall allow the RDFS class geo:Feature to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

8.2.3.  Class: geo:SpatialObjectCollection

The class geo:SpatialObjectCollection is defined by the following:

geo:SpatialObjectCollection
    a owl:Class ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "Spatial Object Collection" ;
    skos:definition "A collection of individual Spatial Objects."@en ;
    skos:note "This is the superclass of Feature Collection and Geometry Collection."@en ;
    rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:Container ;
    rdfs:subClassOf [
        a owl:Restriction ;
        owl:allValuesFrom geo:SpatialObject ;
        owl:onProperty rdfs:member ;
    ] ;
.

Membership of the generic rdfs:Container that defines this class is restricted to instances of Spatial Object. Spatial Object Collection members are to be indicated with the rdfs:member property.

Requirement 4: Spatial Object Collection Class

Identifier/req/core/spatial-object-collection-class
Statement

Implementations shall allow the RDFS class geo:SpatialObjectCollection to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

8.2.4.  Class: geo:FeatureCollection

The class geo:FeatureCollection is defined by the following:

geo:FeatureCollection
    a owl:Class ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "Feature Collection" ;
    skos:definition "A collection of individual Features."@en ;
    rdfs:subClassOf geo:SpatialObjectCollection ;
    rdfs:subClassOf [
        a owl:Restriction ;
        owl:allValuesFrom :Feature ;
        owl:onProperty rdfs:member ;
    ] ;
.

Membership of the more general Spatial Object Collection that defines this class is restricted to instances of Feature. geo:FeatureCollection members are to be indicated with the rdfs:member property.

Requirement 5: Feature Collection Class

Identifier/req/core/feature-collection-class
Statement

Implementations shall allow the RDFS class geo:FeatureCollection to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

8.3.  Standard Properties for geo:SpatialObject

Properties are defined for associating Spatial Objects with scalar spatial measurements (sizes) .

Requirement 6: Spatial Object Properties

Identifier/req/core/spatial-object-properties
Statement

Implementations shall allow the properties geo:hasSize, geo:hasMetricSize, geo:hasLength, geo:hasMetricLength, geo:hasPerimeterLength, geo:hasMetricPerimeterLength, geo:hasArea, geo:hasMetricArea, geo:hasVolume and geo:hasMetricVolume to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

8.3.1.  Property: geo:hasSize

The property geo:hasSize is the superproperty of all properties that can be used to indicate the size of a Spatial Object in case (only) metric units (meter, square meter or cubic meter) can not be used. If it is possible to express size in metric units, subproperties of geo:hasMetricSize should be used. This property has not range specification. This makes it possible to use other vocabularies for expressions of size, for example vocabularies for units of measurment or vocabularies for specifying measurement quality.

GeoSPARQL 1.1 defines the following subproperties of this property: geo:hasLength, geo:hasPerimterLength, geo:hasArea and geo:hasVolume.

geo:hasSize
    a rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
rdfs:domain geo:SpatialObject ;
skos:definition "Subproperties of this property are used to indicate the size of a
                    Spatial Object as a measurement or estimate of one or more dimensions
                    of the Spatial Object's spatial presence."@en ;
skos:prefLabel "has size"@en ;
.

8.3.2.  Property: geo:hasMetricSize

The property geo:hasMetricSize is the superproperty of all properties that can be used to indicate the size of a Spatial Object using metric units (meter, square meter or cubic meter). Using a subproperty of this property is the recommended way to specify size, because using a standard unit of length (meter) benefits data interoperability and simplicity. Subproperties of geo:hasSize can be used if more complex expressions are necessary, for example if the unit of length can not be converted to meter, or if additional data are needed to describe the measurement or estimate of size.

GeoSPARQL 1.1 defines the following subproperties of this property: geo:hasMetricLength, geo:hasMetricPerimeterLength, geo:hasMetricArea and geo:hasMetricVolume.

geo:hasMetricSize
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
rdfs:domain geo:SpatialObject ;
rdfs:range xsd:double ;
skos:definition "Subproperties of this property are used to indicate the size of a
                    Spatial Object, as a measurement or estimate of one or more dimensions
                    of the Spatial Object's spatial presence. Units are always metric
                    (meter, square meter or cubic meter)."@en ;
skos:prefLabel "has metric size"@en ;
.

8.3.3.  Property: geo:hasLength

The property geo:hasLength can be used to indicate the length of a Spatial Object if it is not possible to use the property geo:hasMetricLength. It is a subproperty of geo:hasSize.

geo:hasLength
    a rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasSize ;
rdfs:domain geo:SpatialObject ;
skos:definition "The length of a Spatial Object."@en ;
skos:prefLabel "has length"@en ;
.

8.3.4.  Property: geo:hasMetricLength

The property geo:hasMetricLength can be used to indicate the length of a Spatial Object in meters (m). It is a subproperty of geo:hasMetricSize. This property can be used for Spatial Objects having one, two, or three dimensions.

geo:hasMetricLength
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasMetricSize ;
rdfs:domain geo:SpatialObject ;
rdfs:range xsd:double ;
skos:definition "The length of a Spatial Object in meters."@en ;
skos:prefLabel "has length in meters"@en ;
.

8.3.5.  Property: geo:hasPerimeterLength

The property geo:hasPerimeterLength can be used to indicate the length of the outer boundary of a Spatial Object if it is not possible to use the property geo:hasMetricPerimeterLength. It is a subproperty of geo:hasSize.

geo:hasPerimeterLength
    a rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasSize ;
skos:definition "The length of the perimeter of a Spatial Object."@en ;
skos:prefLabel "has perimeter length"@en ;
.

8.3.6.  Property: geo:hasMetricPerimeterLength

The property geo:hasMetricPerimeterLength can be used to indicate the length of the outer boundary of a Spatial Object in meters (m). It is a subproperty of geo:hasMetricSize. Circumference is considered a type of perimeter, so this property can be used for circular or curved objects too. This property can be used for Spatial Objects having two or three dimensions.

geo:hasMetricPerimeterLength
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasMetricSize ;
rdfs:domain geo:SpatialObject ;
rdfs:range xsd:double ;
skos:definition "The length of the perimeter of a Spatial Object in meters."@en ;
skos:prefLabel "has perimeter length in meters"@en ;
.

A consistency check can be applied to Geometry instances indicating both this property and the property geo:dimension: if supplied, the geo:dimension property’s range value must be the literal integer 2 or 3. The following SPARQL query will return true if applied to a graph where this is not the case for all Geometries:

    PREFIX geo: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#>
    ASK
    WHERE {
        ?g geo:hasMetricPerimeterLength ?p ;
           geo:dimension ?d .

        FILTER (?d < 2)}

8.3.7.  Property: geo:hasArea

The property geo:hasArea can be used to indicate the area of a Spatial Object if it is not possible to use the property geo:hasMetricArea. It is a subproperty of geo:hasSize.

geo:hasArea
    a rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasSize ;
rdfs:domain geo:SpatialObject ;
skos:definition "The area of a Spatial Object."@en ;
skos:prefLabel "has area"@en ;
.

8.3.8.  Property: geo:hasMetricArea

The property geo:hasMetricArea can be used to indicate the area of a Spatial Object in square meters (m2). It is a subproperty of geo:hasMetricSize. This property can be used for Spatial Objects having two or three dimensions.

geo:hasMetricArea
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasMetricSize ;
rdfs:domain geo:SpatialObject ;
rdfs:range xsd:double ;
skos:definition "The area of a Spatial Object in square meters."@en ;
skos:prefLabel "has area in meters"@en ;
.

A consistency check can be applied to Geometry instances indicating both this property and the property geo:dimension: if supplied, the geo:dimension property’s range value must be the literal integer 2 or 3. The following SPARQL query will return true if applied to a graph where this is not the case for all Geometries:

    PREFIX geo: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#>

    ASK
    WHERE {
        ?g geo:hasMetricArea ?a ;
           geo:dimension ?d .

        FILTER (?d < 2)}

8.3.9.  Property: geo:hasVolume

The property geo:hasVolume can be used to indicate the volume of a Spatial Object if it is not possible to use the property geo:hasMetricVolume. It is a subproperty of geo:hasSize.

geo:hasVolume
    a rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasSize ;
rdfs:domain geo:SpatialObject ;
skos:definition "The volume of a three-dimensional Spatial Object."@en ;
skos:prefLabel "has volume"@en ;
.

8.3.10.  Property: geo:hasMetricVolume

The property geo:hasMetricVolume can be used to indicate the volume of a Spatial Object in cubic meters (m3). It is a subproperty of geo:hasMetricSize. This property can be used for Spatial Objects having three dimensions.

geo:hasMetricVolume
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
rdfs:subPropertyOf :hasMetricSize ;
rdfs:domain geo:SpatialObject ;
rdfs:range xsd:double ;
skos:definition "The volume of a Spatial Object in cubic meters."@en ;
skos:prefLabel "has area in meters"@en ;
.

A consistency check can be applied to Geometries indicating both this property and the property geo:dimension: if supplied, the property geo:dimension property’s range value must be the literal integer 3. The following SPARQL query will return true if applied to a graph where this is not the case for all Geometries:

    PREFIX geo: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#>

    ASK
    WHERE {
        ?g geo:hasMetricVolume ?v ;
           geo:dimension ?d .

        FILTER (?d != 3)}

8.4.  Standard Properties for geo:Feature

Properties are defined for associating geo:Feature instances with geo:Geometry instances.

Requirement 7: Feature Properties

Identifier/req/core/feature-properties
Statement

Implementations shall allow the properties geo:hasGeometry, geo:hasDefaultGeometry, geo:hasCentroid and geo:hasBoundingBox to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

8.4.1.  Property: geo:hasGeometry

The property geo:hasGeometry is used to link a Feature with a Geometry that represents its spatial extent. A given Feature may have many associated geometries.

geo:hasGeometry
    a rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Feature ;
    rdfs:range geo:Geometry ;
    skos:prefLabel "has Geometry"@en ;
    skos:definition "A spatial representation for a given Feature."@en ;
.

8.4.2.  Property: geo:hasDefaultGeometry

The property geo:hasDefaultGeometry is used to link a Feature with its default Geometry. The default geometry is the Geometry that should be used for spatial calculations in the absence of a request for a specific geometry (e.g. in the case of query rewrite).

geo:hasDefaultGeometry
    a rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Feature ;
    rdfs:range geo:Geometry ;
    skos:prefLabel "has Default Geometry"@en ;
    skos:definition "The default geometry to be used in spatial calculations,
                    usually the most detailed geometry."@en ;
    rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasGeometry ;
.

GeoSPARQL does not restrict the cardinality of the has default geometry property. It is thus possible for a Feature to have more than one distinct default geometry or to have no default geometry. This situation does not result in a query processing error; SPARQL graph pattern matching simply proceeds as normal. Certain queries may, however, give logically inconsistent results. For example, if a Feature my:f1 has two asserted default geometries, and those two geometries are disjoint polygons, the query below could return a non-zero count on a system supporting the GeoSPARQL Query Rewrite Extension (rule geor:sfDisjoint).

PREFIX geo: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#>

SELECT (COUNT(*) AS ?cnt)
WHERE { :f1 geo:sfDisjoint :f1 }

Such cases are application-specific data modeling errors and are therefore outside of the scope of the GeoSPARQL specification., however it is recommended that multiple geometries indicated with geo:hasDefaultGeometry should be differentiated by Geometry class properties, perhaps relating to precision, SRS etc.

8.4.3.  Property: geo:hasBoundingBox

The property geo:hasBoundingBox is used to link a Feature with a simplified geometry-representation corresponding to the envelope of the feature’s geometry. Bounding-boxes are typically used in indexing and discovery.

geo:hasBoundingBox
    a rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasGeometry ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Feature ;
    rdfs:range geo:Geometry ;
    skos:prefLabel "has bounding box"@en ;
    skos:definition "The minimum or smallest bounding or enclosing box of a given Feature."@en ;
    skos:scopeNote "The target is a geometry that defines a rectilinear region whose edges are
                    aligned with the axes of the coordinate reference system, which exactly
                    contains the geometry or Feature e.g. sf:Envelope"@en ;
.

GeoSPARQL does not restrict the cardinality of the geo:hasBoundingBox property. A Feature may be associated with more than one bounding-box, for example in different coordinate reference systems.

8.4.4.  Property: geo:hasCentroid

The property geo:hasCentroid is used to link a Feature with a point geometry corresponding with the centroid of its geometry. The centroid is typically used to show location on a low-resolution image, and for some indexing and discovery functions.

geo:hasCentroid
    a rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasGeometry ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Feature ;
    rdfs:range geo:Geometry ;
    skos:prefLabel "has centroid"@en ;
    skos:definition "The arithmetic mean position of all the geometry points
                    of a given Feature."@en ;
    skos:scopeNote "The target geometry shall describe a point, e.g. sf:Point"@en ;
.

GeoSPARQL does not restrict the cardinality of the geo:hasCentroid property. A Feature may be associated with more than one centroid, for example computed using different rules or in different coordinate reference systems.

9.  Topology Vocabulary Extension

This clause establishes the Topology Vocabulary Extension parameterized Requirements class. The IRI base is /req/topology-vocab-extension, which has a single corresponding Conformance Class Topology Vocabulary Extension, with IRI /conf/topology-vocab-extension. This Requirements class defines a vocabulary for asserting and querying topological relations between spatial objects. The class is parameterized so that different families of topological relations may be used, such as RCC8 and Egenhofer. These relations are generalized so that they may connect features as well as geometries.

Requirements class 1: Topology Vocabulary Extension

Identifier/req/topology-vocab-extension
Target typeImplementation Specification
Conformance classConformance class A.2: /conf/topology-vocab-extension
requirement

/req/topology-vocab-extension/sf-spatial-relations


/req/topology-vocab-extension/eh-spatial-relations


/req/topology-vocab-extension/rcc8-spatial-relations

A Dimensionally Extended 9-Intersection Model DE-9IM pattern, which specifies the spatial dimension of the intersections of the interiors, boundaries and exteriors of two geometric objects, is used to describe each spatial relation. Possible pattern values are -1 (empty), 0, 1, 2, T (true) = {0, 1, 2}, F (false) = {-1}, * (don’t care) = {-1, 0, 1, 2}. In the following descriptions, the notation X/Y is used to denote applying a spatial relation to geometry types X and Y (i.e., xrelationy where x is of type X and y is of type Y). The symbol P is used for 0-dimensional geometries (e.g. points). The symbol L is used for 1-dimensional geometries (e.g. lines), and the symbol A is used for 2-dimensional geometries (e.g. polygons). Consult the Simple Features specification [OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1 for a more detailed description of DE-9IM intersection patterns.

9.1.  Parameters

The following parameter is defined for the Topology Vocabulary Extension Requirements.

relation_family: Specifies the set of topological spatial relations to support.

9.2.  Simple Features Relation Family

This clause defines Requirements for the Simple Features relation family.

Requirement 8: Simple Feature Spatial Relations

Identifier/req/topology-vocab-extension/sf-spatial-relations
Statement

Implementations shall allow the properties geo:sfEquals, geo:sfDisjoint, geo:sfIntersects, geo:sfTouches, geo:sfCrosses, geo:sfWithin, geo:sfContains and geo:sfOverlaps to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

Topological relations in the Simple Features family are summarized in Table 2. Multi-row intersection patterns should be interpreted as a logical OR of each row.

Table 2 — Simple Features Topological Relations

Relation NameRelation IRIDomain/RangeApplies To Geometry TypesDE-9IM Intersection Pattern
equalsgeo:sfEqualsgeo:SpatialObjectAll(TFFFTFFFT)
disjointgeo:sfDisjointgeo:SpatialObjectAll(FF**FF****)
intersectsgeo:sfIntersectsgeo:SpatialObjectAll(T******** *T******* ***T***** ****T****)
touchesgeo:sfTouchesgeo:SpatialObjectAll except P/P(FT******* F**T***** F***T****)
withingeo:sfWithingeo:SpatialObjectAll(T*F**F***)
containsgeo:sfContainsgeo:SpatialObjectAll(T*****FF*)
overlapsgeo:sfOverlapsgeo:SpatialObjectA/A, P/P, L/L(T*T***T**) for A/A, P/P; (1*T***T**) for L/L
crossesgeo:sfCrossesgeo:SpatialObjectP/L, P/A, L/A, L/L(T*T***T**) for P/L, P/A, L/A; (0********) for L/L

9.3.  Egenhofer Relation Family

This clause defines Requirements for the 9-intersection model for the binary topological relations (Egenhofer) relation family. The reader should consult references FORMAL and CATEG for a more detailed discussion of Egenhofer relations.

Requirement 9: Egenhofer Spatial Relations

Identifier/req/topology-vocab-extension/eh-spatial-relations
Statement

Implementations shall allow the properties geo:ehEquals, geo:ehDisjoint, geo:ehMeet, geo:ehOverlap, geo:ehCovers, geo:ehCoveredBy, geo:ehInside and geo:ehContains to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

Topological relations in the Egenhofer family are summarized in Table 3. Multi-row intersection patterns should be interpreted as a logical OR of each row.

Table 3 — Egenhofer Topological Relations

Relation NameRelation IRIDomain/RangeApplies To Geometry TypesDE-9IM Intersection Pattern
equalsgeo:ehEqualsgeo:SpatialObjectAll(TFFFTFFFT)
disjointgeo:ehDisjointgeo:SpatialObjectAll(FF*FF****)
meetgeo:ehMeetgeo:SpatialObjectAll except P/P(FT******* F**T***** F***T****)
overlapgeo:ehOverlapgeo:SpatialObjectAll(T*T***T**)
coversgeo:ehCoversgeo:SpatialObjectA/A, A/L, L/L(T*TFT*FF*)
covered bygeo:ehCoveredBygeo:SpatialObjectA/A, L/A, L/L(TFF*TFT**)
insidegeo:ehInsidegeo:SpatialObjectAll(TFF*FFT**)
containsgeo:ehContainsgeo:SpatialObjectAll(T*TFF*FF*)

9.4.  RCC8 Relation Family

This clause defines Requirements for the region connection calculus basic 8 (RCC8) relation family. The reader should consult references QUAL and LOGIC for a more detailed discussion of RCC8 relations.

Requirement 10: RCC8 Spatial Relations

Identifier/req/topology-vocab-extension/rcc8-spatial-relations
Statement

Implementations shall allow the properties geo:rcc8eq, geo:rcc8dc, geo:rcc8ec, geo:rcc8po, geo:rcc8tppi, geo:rcc8tpp, geo:rcc8ntpp, geo:rcc8ntppi to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

Topological relations in the RCC8 family are summarized in Table 4.

Table 4 — RCC8 Topological Relations

Relation NameRelation IRIDomain/RangeApplies To Geometry TypesDE-9IM Intersection Pattern
equalsgeo:rcc8eqgeo:SpatialObjectA/A(TFFFTFFFT)
disconnectedgeo:rcc8dcgeo:SpatialObjectA/A(FFTFFTTTT)
externally connectedgeo:rcc8ecgeo:SpatialObjectA/A(FFTFTTTTT)
partially overlappinggeo:rcc8pogeo:SpatialObjectA/A(TTTTTTTTT)
tangential proper part inversegeo:rcc8tppigeo:SpatialObjectA/A(TTTFTTFFT)
tangential proper partgeo:rcc8tppgeo:SpatialObjectA/A(TFFTTFTTT)
non-tangential proper partgeo:rcc8ntppgeo:SpatialObjectA/A(TFFTFFTTT)
non-tangential proper part inversegeo:rcc8ntppigeo:SpatialObjectA/A(TTTFFTFFT)

9.5.  Equivalent RCC8, Egenhofer and Simple Features Topological Relations

Table 5 summarizes the equivalences between Egenhofer, RCC8 and Simple Features spatial relations for closed, non-empty regions. The symbol + denotes logical OR, and the symbol ¬ denotes negation.

Table 5 — Equivalent Simple Features, RCC8 and Egenhofer relations

Simple FeaturesRCC8Egenhofer
equalsequalsequals
disjointdisconnecteddisjoint
intersects¬ disconnected¬ disjoint
touchesexternally connectedmeet
withinnon-tangential proper part + tangential proper partinside + coveredBy
containsnon-tangential proper part inverse + tangential proper part inversecontains + covers
overlapspartially overlappingoverlap

10.  Geometry Extension

This clause defines the Geometry Extension parameterized Requirements class with the base IRI /req/geometry-extension. There is a single corresponding conformance class Geometry Extension, with the IRI /conf/geometry-extension. These Requirements define a vocabulary for asserting and querying information about geometry data, and define query functions for operating on geometry data.

Requirements class 2: Geometry Extension

Identifier/req/geometry-extension
Target typeImplementation Specification
Conformance classConformance class A.3: /conf/geometry-extension
requirement

/req/geometry-extension/geometry-class


/req/geometry-extension/geometry-collection-class


/req/geometry-extension/feature-properties


/req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties


/req/geometry-extension/query-functions


/req/geometry-extension/srid-function


/req/geometry-extension/sa-functions


/req/geometry-extension/wkt-literal


/req/geometry-extension/wkt-literal-default-srs


/req/geometry-extension/wkt-axis-order


/req/geometry-extension/wkt-literal-empty


/req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-wkt-literal


/req/geometry-extension/asWKT-function


/req/geometry-extension/gml-literal


/req/geometry-extension/gml-literal-empty


/req/geometry-extension/gml-profile


/req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-gml-literal


/req/geometry-extension/asGML-function


/req/geometry-extension/geojson-literal


/req/geometry-extension/geojson-literal-srs


/req/geometry-extension/geojson-literal-empty


/req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-geojson-literal


/req/geometry-extension/asGeoJSON-function


/req/geometry-extension/kml-literal


/req/geometry-extension/kml-literal-srs


/req/geometry-extension/kml-literal-empty


/req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-kml-literal


/req/geometry-extension/asKML-function

As part of the vocabulary, RDFS datatypes are defined for encoding detailed geometry information as a literal value. A literal representation of a geometry is needed so that geometric values may be treated as a single unit. Such a representation allows geometries to be passed to external functions for computations and to be returned from a query.

10.1.  Rationale

Other schemes for encoding simple geometry data in RDF have been implemented. The W3C Basic Geo vocabulary3 was an early (2003) RDF vocabulary for “representing lat(itude), long(itude) and other information about spatially-located things. Geo specifies WGS84 as the reference datum”. Further, many widely used Semantic Web vocabularies contain some spatial data support. For example, Dublin Core Terms provides a Location class4 for “A spatial region or named place.” and schema.org provides a number of spatial object and geometry classes, such as GeoCoordinates5 and GeoShape6.

Many vocabularies such as the above provide little specific support for detailed geometries and only specify using the WGS84 Coordinate Reference System (CRS).

Since the first version of GeoSPARQL, many ontologies have imported GeoSPARQL. For example, the ISA Programme Location Core Vocabulary7 whose usage notes provide examples containing GeoSPARQL literals and the use of GeoSPARQL’s “geometry class”. The W3C’s more recent Data Catalog Vocabulary, Version 2 (DCAT2) standard8 similarly contains usage notes for geometry, bbox and other properties that suggest the use of GeoSPARQL literals.

Some of the properties defined in these vocabularies, such as DCAT2’s dcat:spatialResolution have motivated the inclusion of new properties in this version of GeoSPARQL. In this case the equivalent property is geo:hasSpatialResolution. The GeoSPARQL 1.1 Standards Working Group charter CHARTER contains references to a number of vocabularies/ontologies that were influential in the generation of this version of GeoSPARQL.

10.2.  GeoSPARQL and Simple Features (SFA-CA)

The GeoSPARQL Geometry Extension is largely based on the ISO/OGC Simple Features Access — Common Architecture (SFA-CA) Standard [OGCSFACA]. Contrary to what the name may imply, SFA-CA is about Geometry and not about Features. SFA-CA describes simple geometry, meaning that geometric shapes are based on points and straight lines (linear interpolations) between points. Within a single Geometry, these lines may not cross.

Neither GeoSPARQL nor SFA-CA support full three dimensional geometry. Coordinates may be three-dimensional, which means that points may have a Z-coordinate next to an X- and Y-coordinate. The Z-coordinate then holds the value of height or depth. However, lines or surfaces can only have one Z value for any explicit or interpolated X,Y pair. This approach is often referred to as 2.5 dimensional geometry. Geometric functions working with Geometries that have Z values will ignore Z values in calculations and first project geometry onto the Z=0 level.

SFA-CA also describes M coordinate values that may be part of geometry encodings. The M value represents a measure, a value that can be used in information systems that support linear referencing. GeoSPARQL at the moment does not support linear referencing. Like Z values in coordinates, M values are to be ignored.

SFA-CA specifies a class hierarchy for Geometry. Although these classes are not part of the GeoSPARQL ontology, the GeoSPARQL SWG does publish a vocabulary of Simple Features geometry: http://www.opengis.net/ont/sf. Geometry types defined in this vocabulary can be considered safe to use with GeoSPARQL. The two Geometry serializations that were specified in GeoSPARQL 1.0, WKT and GML, fully support all SFA-CA geometry types. However, the two Geometry serializations that were introduced in GeoSPARQL 1.1 do not. Some SFA-CA geometry types are not supported by either the OGC KML [OGCKML] or the GeoJSON format. For example, neither KML nor GeoJSON support the Triangulated Integrated Network (TIN) or Triangle geometry types.

10.3.  Recommendation for units of measure

For geometric data to be interpreted and used correctly, the units of measure should be known. Typically, the particular Spatial Reference System (SRS) that is associated with a Geometry instance will specify a unit of measurement. However, some elements of GeoSPARQL allow arbitrary units of distance to be used, for example the property geo:hasSpatialResolution or the function geof:buffer. In those cases it is advisable to make use of a well-known web vocabulary for units of measurement. Making the unit of measurement explicit will improve data interoperability. The recommended vocabulary for units of measurement for GeoSPARQL is the Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types (QUDT) ontology9 but others may be used, as long as they are well-described.

10.4.  Influence of Reference Systems on computations

A Geometry object consists of a set of coordinates and a specification on how the coordinates should be interpreted. This specification is known as a Spatial reference System (SRS). Taken together, coordinates and SRS allow performing computations on Geometry objects. For example, sizes can be calculated or new Geometry objects can be created. Some Spatial Reference Systems describe a two-dimensional flat space. In that case, coordinates are understood to be Cartesian, and Cartesian geometric computations can be performed. But Spatial Reference Systems can describe other types of spaces, to which Cartesian computations are not applicable. For example, if CRS <http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84> is used, coordinates are to be interpreted as decimal degrees of latitude and longitude, designating positions on a spheroid. The distance between two points using this CRS is different from the distance between two points that have the same coordinates but are based on a Cartesian CRS or other SRS.

To avoid erroneous computations involving Geometry, data publishers are recommended to clearly indicate the type of space that is described by the SRS.

10.5.  Parameters

The following parameters are defined for the Geometry Extension Requirements.

serialization

Specifies the serialization standard to use when generating geometry literals as well as the supported geometry types.

NOTE:    A serialization strongly affects the geometry conceptualization. The WKT serialization aligns the geometry types with ISO 19125 Simple Features[OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1; the GML serialization aligns the geometry types with ISO 19107 Spatial SchemaISO19107.

version

Specifies the version of the serialization format used.

10.6.  Geometry Class

A single root geometry class is defined: geo:Geometry. In addition, properties are defined for describing geometry data and for associating geometries with features.

One container class is defined: Geometry Collection.

10.6.1.  Class: geo:Geometry

The class geo:Geometry is conceptually derived from UML class Geometry in ISO19107 which is that standard’s “root class of the geometric object taxonomy and supports interfaces common to all geographically referenced geometric objects”. geo:Geometry is defined by the following:

geo:Geometry
    a rdfs:Class, owl:Class ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "Geometry"@en ;
    rdfs:subClassOf geo:SpatialObject ;
    owl:disjointWith geo:Feature;
    skos:definition "A coherent set of direct positions in space. The positions
                    are held within a Spatial Reference System (SRS)."@en ;
    skos:note "Geometry can be used as a representation of the shape, extent or
              location of a Feature and may exist as a self-contained entity."@en ;
.

Requirement 11: Geometry Class

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/geometry-class
Statement

Implementations shall allow the RDFS class geo:Geometry to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

10.6.2.  Class: geo:GeometryCollection

The class Geometry Collection is defined by the following:

geo:GeometryCollection
  a owl:Class ;
  rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
  skos:prefLabel "Geometry Collection"@en ;
  skos:definition "A collection of individual Geometries."@en ;
  rdfs:subClassOf geo:SpatialObjectCollection ;
  rdfs:subClassOf [
      a owl:Restriction ;
      owl:allValuesFrom geo:Geometry ;
      owl:onProperty rdfs:member ;
    ] ;
.

Membership of the general Spatial Object Collection that defines this class is restricted to instances of Geometry. geo:GeometryCollection members are to be indicated with the rdfs:member property.

NOTE:    There is no RDF/ontology relationship between this geo:GeometryCollection class and the Simple Features Vocabulary’s sf:GeometryCollection class since the former is a collection of geo:Geometry objects and the latter is to be used for compound geometry literals.

sf:GeometryCollection instances can act as input or output of GeoSPARQL functions whereas geo:GeometryCollection instances are more likely to be used for grouping geo:Geometry objects for other purposes.

Many geometry literal formats also have the ability to represent multiple geometries. Both the OGC Geography Markup Language (GML) and KML use a MultiGeometry type and Well Known Text (WKT) and GeoJSON use a GeometryCollection type. While the names of some of these objects are the same as this class’ and all the concepts are similar, there is also no RDF/ontology relationship between this class and these literals. This class contains whole geo:Geometry instances, which may have more information within them than just a geometry serialization.

As per the expected use of sf:GeometryCollection instances mentioned above: the uses of multi-geometry literals and geo:GeometryCollection instances is expected to be different too.

Requirement 12: Geometry Collection Class

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/geometry-collection-class
Statement

Implementations shall allow the RDFS class geo:GeometryCollection to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

10.7.  Standard Properties for geo:Geometry

Properties are defined for describing geometry metadata.

Requirement 13: Geometry Properties

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Statement

Implementations shall allow the properties geo:dimension, geo:coordinateDimension, geo:spatialDimension, geo:hasSpatialResolution, geo:hasMetricSpatialResolution, geo:hasSpatialAccuracy, geo:hasMetricSpatialAccuracy, geo:isEmpty, geo:isSimple and geo:hasSerialization to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

10.7.1.  Property: geo:dimension

The property geo:dimension is used to link a Geometry object to its topological dimension, which must be less than or equal to the coordinate dimension. In non-homogeneous collections, this will return the largest topological dimension of the contained objects.

geo:dimension
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "dimension"@en ;
    skos:definition "The topological dimension of this geometric object, which
                    must be less than or equal to the coordinate dimension. In
                    non-homogeneous collections, this is the largest
                    topological dimension of the contained objects."@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
    rdfs:range xsd:integer ;
.

10.7.2.  Property: geo:coordinateDimension

The property geo:coordinateDimension is defined to link a Geometry object to the dimension of direct positions (coordinate tuples) used in the Geometry’s definition.

geo:coordinateDimension
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "coordinate dimension"@en ;
    skos:definition "The number of measurements or axes needed to describe the
                    position of this Geometry in a coordinate system."@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
    rdfs:range xsd:integer ;
.

10.7.3.  Property: geo:spatialDimension

The property geo:spatialDimension is defined to link a Geometry object to the dimension of the spatial portion of the direct positions (coordinate tuples) used in its serializations. If the direct positions do not carry a measure coordinate, this will be equal to the coordinate dimension.

geo:spatialDimension
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "spatial dimension"@en ;
    skos:definition "The number of measurements or axes needed to describe the
                    spatial position of this Geometry in a coordinate system."@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
    rdfs:range xsd:integer ;
.

10.7.4.  Property: geo:hasSpatialResolution

The property geo:hasSpatialResolution is defined to indicate the spatial resolution of the elements within a Geometry. Spatial resolution specifies the level of detail of a Geometry. It is the smallest distinguishable distance between adjacent coordinate sets. This property is not applicable to a point Geometry, because a point consists of a single coordinate set.

Since this property is defined for a geo:Geometry, all literal representations of that Geometry instance must have the same spatial resolution.

geo:hasSpatialResolution
    a rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "has spatial resolution"@en ;
    skos:definition "The spatial resolution of a Geometry"@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
.

NOTE:    See the Clause 10.3.

10.7.5.  Property: geo:hasMetricSpatialResolution

The property geo:hasMetricSpatialResolution is similar to geo:hasSpatialResolution, except that the unit of resolution is always meter (the standard distance unit of the International System of Units).

geo:hasMetricSpatialResolution
    a rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "has spatial resolution in meters"@en ;
    skos:definition "The spatial resolution of a Geometry in meters."@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
    rdfs:range xsd:double ;
.

10.7.6.  Property: geo:hasSpatialAccuracy

The property geo:hasSpatialAccuracy is applicable when a Geometry is used to represent a Feature. It is expressed as a distance that indicates the truthfulness of the positions (coordinates) that define the Geometry. In this case accuracy defines a zone surrounding each coordinate within which the real positions are known to be. The accuracy value defines this zone as a distance from the coordinate(s) in all directions (e.g. a line, a circle or a sphere, depending on spatial dimension).

geo:hasSpatialAccuracy
    a rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "has spatial accuracy"@en ;
    skos:definition "The positional accuracy of the coordinates of a Geometry."@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
.

NOTE:    See the Clause 10.3.

10.7.7.  Property: geo:hasMetricSpatialAccuracy

The property geo:hasMetricSpatialAccuracy is similar to has spatial accuracy, but is easier to specify and use because the unit of distance is always meter (the standard distance unit of the International System of Units).

geo:hasMetricSpatialAccuracy
    a rdf:Property, owl:ObjectProperty;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "has spatial accuracy in meters"@en ;
    skos:definition "The positional accuracy of the coordinates of a Geometry in meters."@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
    rdfs:range xsd:double ;
.

10.7.8.  Property: geo:isEmpty

The property geo:isEmpty will indicate a Boolean object set to true if and only if the Geometry contains no information.

geo:isEmpty
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "is empty"@en ;
    skos:definition "(true) if this geometric object is the empty Geometry. If
                    true, then this geometric object represents the empty point
                    set for the coordinate space."@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
    rdfs:range xsd:boolean ;
.

10.7.9.  Property: geo:isSimple

The property geo:isSimple will indicate a Boolean object set to true if and only if the Geometry contains no self-intersections, with the possible exception of its boundary.

geo:isSimple
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "is simple"@en ;
    skos:definition "(true) if this geometric object has no anomalous geometric
                    points, such as self intersection or self tangency."@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
    rdfs:range xsd:boolean ;
.

10.7.10.  Property: geo:hasSerialization

The property geo:hasSerialization is defined to connect a Geometry with its text-based serialization (e.g., its WKT serialization).

geo:hasSerialization
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "has serialization"@en ;
    skos:definition "Connects a Geometry object with its text-based serialization."@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
    rdfs:range rdfs:Literal ;
.

NOTE:    this property is the generic property used to connect a Geometry with its serialization. GeoSPARQL also contains a number of sub properties of this property for connecting serializations of common types with geometries, for example as GeoJSON which can be used for GeoJSON GEOJSON literals.

10.8.  Geometry Serializations

This section establishes the Requirements class for representing Geometry data in RDF literals, according to different non-RDF systems.

GeoSPARQL presents specializations of the geo:hasSerialization property for indicating particular serializations and specialized datatype literals for containing them. It does not provide comprehensive definitions of their content since these are given in standards external to GeoSPARQL, all of which are referenced.

GeoSPARQL does present some Requirements for literal structure which extend the serialization-defining standards, for example the requirement to allow indications of spatial reference systems within WKT geometry representations.

Example

GeoSPARQL’s expectation of RDF literal representations of geometry data is that it is related to the Simple Features Access (SFA) [OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1 standard’s conceptualization of geometry which defines classes such as Point, Curve and Surface and specialized variants of them which it presents in a hierarchy. All SFA classes are represented in OWL in the Simple Features Vocabulary presented within GeoSPARQL as an independent profile element, see GeoSPARQL Standard structure.

Some geometry representation systems given here do not use the same terminology as SFA, in particular Discrete Global Grid Systems. To know the extent to which geometry literal representations listed here support SFA, or map to SFA, please see their definitions.

10.8.1.  Well-Known Text

This section establishes the requirements for representing Geometry data in RDF based on Well-Known Text (WKT) as defined by Simple Features Access[OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1. It defines one RDFS Datatype: WKT Literal and one property, as WKT.

10.8.1.1.  RDFS Datatype: geo:wktLiteral

The datatype geo:wktLiteral is used to contain the Well-Known Text (WKT) serialization of a Geometry.

geo:wktLiteral
    a rdfs:Datatype ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "Well-known Text literal"@en ;
    skos:definition "A Well-known Text serialization of a Geometry object."@en ;
.

Requirement 14: WKT Literal

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/wkt-literal
Statement

All RDFS Literals of type geo:wktLiteral shall consist of an optional IRI identifying the coordinate reference system and a required Well Known Text (WKT) description of a geometric value. Valid geo:wktLiteral instances are formed by either a WKT string as defined in ISO13249 or by concatenating a valid absolute IRI, as defined in [IETF3987], enclosed in angled brackets (< & >) followed by whitespace as a separator, and a WKT string as defined in ISO13249.

The following ABNFIETF5234 syntax specification formally defines this literal:

wktLiteral ::= opt-iri-and-whitespace geometry-data

opt-iri-and-space = "<" IRI ">" LWSP / ""

The token opt-iri-and-whitespace may be either an IRI and whitespace (spaces, tabs, newlines) or nothing (""), the token IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifier) is essentially a web address and is defined in [IETF3987] and the token LWSP, is one or more white space characters, as defined in IETF5234. geometry-data is the Well-Known Text representation of the Geometry, defined in ISO13249.

In the absence of a leading spatial reference system IRI, the following spatial reference system IRI will be assumed: <http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84>. This IRI denotes WGS 84 longitude-latitude.

Requirement 15: WKT Literal Default SRS

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/wkt-literal-default-srs
Statement

The IRI <http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84> shall be assumed as the spatial reference system for geo:wktLiteral instances that do not specify an explicit spatial reference system IRI.

The OGC maintains a set of SRS IRIs under the http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/ namespace and IRIs from this set are recommended for use. However others may also be used, as long as they are valid IRIs.

Requirement 16: WKT Literal Axis Order

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/wkt-axis-order
Statement

Coordinate tuples within geo:wktLiteral shall be interpreted using the axis order defined in the spatial reference system used.

The example WKT Literal below encodes a point Geometry using the default WGS84 geodetic longitude-latitude spatial reference system:

"Point(-83.38 33.95)"^^<http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#wktLiteral>

A second example below encodes the same point as encoded in the example above but using a SRS identified by http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326: a WGS 84 geodetic latitude-longitude spatial reference system (note that this spatial reference system defines a different axis order):

"<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326> Point(33.95 -83.38)"^^<http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#wktLiteral>

Requirement 17: Empty WKT Literal

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/wkt-literal-empty
Statement

An empty RDFS Literal of type geo:wktLiteral shall be interpreted as an empty Geometry.

10.8.1.2.  Property: geo:asWKT

The property geo:asWKT is defined to link a Geometry with its WKT serialization.

Requirement 18: asWKT Property

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-wkt-literal
Statement

Implementations shall allow the RDF property geo:asWKT to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

geo:asWKT
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty ;
    rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasSerialization ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "as WKT"@en ;
    skos:definition "The WKT serialization of a Geometry."@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
    rdfs:range geo:wktLiteral ;
.

10.8.1.3.  Function: geof:asWKT

geof:asWKT (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): geo:wktLiteral

The function geof:asWKT converts geom to an equivalent WKT representation preserving the spatial reference system.

Requirement 19: asWKT Function

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/asWKT-function
Statement

Implementations shall support geof:asWKT as a SPARQL extension function.

10.8.2.  Geography Markup Language

This section establishes a Requirements class for representing Geometry data in RDF based on GML as defined by the Geography Markup Language Encoding Standard OGC07-036. It defines one RDFS Datatype: GML Literal and one property, as GML.

10.8.2.1.  RDFS Datatype: geo:gmlLiteral

The datatype geo:gmlLiteral is used to contain the Geography Markup Language (GML) serialization of a Geometry.

geo:gmlLiteral
    a rdfs:Datatype ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "GML literal"@en ;
    skos:definition "The datatype of GML literal values"@en ;
.

Valid GML Literal instances are formed by encoding Geometry information as a valid element from the GML schema that implements a subtype of GM_Object. For example, in GML 3.2.1 this is every element directly or indirectly in the substitution group of the element {http://www.opengis.net/ont/gml/3.2}AbstractGeometry. In GML 3.1.1 and GML 2.1.2 this is every element directly or indirectly in the substitution group of the element {http://www.opengis.net/ont/gml}_Geometry.

Requirement 20: GML Literal

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/gml-literal
Statement

All geo:gmlLiteral instances shall consist of a valid element from the GML schema that implements a subtype of GM_Object as defined in OGC07-036.

The example GML Literal below encodes a point Geometry in the WGS 84 geodetic longitude-latitude spatial reference system using GML version 3.2:

"""
<gml:Point
        srsName=\"http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84\"
        xmlns:gml=\"http://www.opengis.net/gml/3.2\">
    <gml:pos>-83.38 33.95</gml:pos>
</gml:Point>
"""^^<http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#gmlLiteral>

Requirement 21: Empty GML Literal

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/gml-literal-empty
Statement

An empty geo:gmlLiteral shall be interpreted as an empty Geometry.

Requirement 22: GML Profile

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/gml-profile
Statement

Implementations shall document supported GML profiles.

10.8.2.2.  Property: geo:asGML

The property geo:asGML is defined to link a Geometry with its GML serialization.

Requirement 23: asGML Property

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-gml-literal
Statement

Implementations shall allow the RDF property geo:asGML to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

geo:asGML
    a rdf:Property ;
    rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasSerialization ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "as GML"@en ;
    skos:definition "The GML serialization of a Geometry."@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
    rdfs:range geo:gmlLiteral ;
.

10.8.2.3.  Function: geof:asGML

geof:asGML (geom: ogc:geomLiteral, gmlProfile: xsd:string): geo:gmlLiteral

The function geof:asGML converts geom to an equivalent GML representation defined by a gmlProfile version string preserving the coordinate reference system.

Requirement 24: asGML Function

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/asGML-function
Statement

Implementations shall support geof:asGML as a SPARQL extension function.

10.8.3.  GeoJSON

This section establishes a Requirements class for representing Geometry data in RDF based on Geographic JavaScript Object Notation (GeoJSON) as defined by Clause 10.8.3. It defines one RDFS Datatype: GeoJSON Literal and one property, as GeoJSON.

10.8.3.1.  RDFS Datatype: geo:geoJSONLiteral

The datatype geo:geoJSONLiteral is used to contain the GeoJSON serialization of a Geometry.

geo:geoJSONLiteral a rdfs:Datatype ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "GeoJSON Literal"@en ;
    skos:definition "A GeoJSON serialization of a Geometry object."@en .

Valid GeoJSON Literal instances are formed by encoding Geometry information as a Geometry object as defined in the GeoJSON specification GEOJSON.

Requirement 25: GeoJSON Literal

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/geojson-literal
Statement

All geo:geoJSONLiteral instances shall consist of the Geometry objects as defined in the GeoJSON specification GEOJSON.

Requirement 26: GeoJSON Literal SRS

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/geojson-literal-srs
Statement

RDFS Literals of type geo:geoJSONLiteral do not contain a SRS definition. All literals of this type shall, according to the GeoJSON specification, be encoded only in, and be assumed to use, the WGS84 geodetic longitude-latitude spatial reference system (http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84).

The example GeoJSON Literal below encodes a point Geometry using the default WGS84 geodetic longitude-latitude spatial reference system for Simple Features 1.0:

"""
{"type": "Point", "coordinates": [-83.38,33.95]}
"""^^<http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#geoJSONLiteral>

Requirement 27: Empty GeoJSON Literal

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/geojson-literal-empty
Statement

An empty RDFS Literal of type geo:geoJSONLiteral shall be interpreted as an empty Geometry, i.e. {"geometry": null} in GeoJSON .

10.8.3.2.  Property: geo:asGeoJSON

The property geo:asGeoJSON is defined to link a Geometry with its GeoJSON serialization.

Requirement 28: asGeoJSON Property

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-geojson-literal
Statement

Implementations shall allow the RDF property geo:asGeoJSON to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

geo:asGeoJSON
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty ;
    rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasSerialization ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "as GeoJSON"@en ;
    skos:definition "The GeoJSON serialization of a Geometry."@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
    rdfs:range geo:geoJSONLiteral ;
.

10.8.3.3.  Function: geof:asGeoJSON

geof:asGeoJSON (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): geo:geoJSONLiteral

The function geof:asGeoJSON converts geom to an equivalent GeoJSON representation. Coordinates are converted to the CRS84 coordinate system, the only valid coordinate system to be used in a GeoJSON literal.

Requirement 29: asGeoJSON Function

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/asGeoJSON-function
Statement

Implementations shall support geof:asGeoJSON as a SPARQL extension function.

10.8.4.  Keyhole Markup Language

This section establishes the Requirements class for representing Geometry data in RDF based on KML as defined by [OGCKML]. It defines one RDFS Datatype: KML Literal and one property, as KML.

10.8.4.1.  RDFS Datatype: geo:kmlLiteral

The datatype geo:kmlLiteral is used to contain the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) serialization of a Geometry.

geo:kmlLiteral
    a rdfs:Datatype ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "KML Literal"@en ;
    skos:definition "A KML serialization of a Geometry object."@en ;
.

Valid KML Literal instances are formed by encoding Geometry information as a Geometry object as defined in the KML specification [OGCKML].

Requirement 30: KML Literal

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/kml-literal
Statement

All geo:kmlLiteral instances shall consist of the Geometry objects as defined in the KML specification [OGCKML].

Requirement 31: KML Literal SRS

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/kml-literal-srs
Statement

RDFS Literals of type geo:kmlLiteral do not contain a SRS definition. All literals of this type shall according to the KML specification only be encoded in and assumed to use the WGS84 geodetic longitude-latitude spatial reference system (http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84).

The example KML Literal below encodes a point Geometry using the default WGS84 geodetic longitude-latitude spatial reference system for Simple Features 1.0:

"""
<Point xmlns=\"http://www.opengis.net/kml/2.2\">
    <coordinates>-83.38,33.95</coordinates>
</Point>
"""^^<http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#kmlLiteral>

Requirement 32: Empty KML Literal

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/kml-literal-empty
Statement

An empty RDFS Literal of type geo:kmlLiteral shall be interpreted as an empty Geometry.

10.8.4.2.  Property: geo:asKML

The property geo:asKML is defined to link a Geometry with its KML serialization.

Requirement 33: asKML Property

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-kml-literal
Statement

Implementations shall allow the RDF property geo:asKML to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

The property as KML is used to link a geometric element with its KML serialization.

geo:asKML
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty;
    rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasSerialization ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "as KML"@en ;
    skos:definition "The KML serialization of a Geometry."@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
    rdfs:range geo:kmlLiteral ;
.

10.8.4.3.  Function: geof:asKML

geof:asKML (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): geo:kmlLiteral

The function geof:asKML converts geom to an equivalent KML representation. Coordinates are converted to the CRS84 coordinate system, the only valid coordinate system to be used in a KML literal.

Requirement 34: asKML Function

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/asKML-function
Statement

Implementations shall support geof:asKML as a SPARQL extension function.

10.8.5.  Discrete Global Grid System

Requirements class 3: Geometry DGGS Extension

Identifier/req/geometry-extension-dggs
Target typeImplementation Specification
Conformance classConformance class A.4: /conf/geometry-extension-dggs
requirement

/req/geometry-extension-dggs/query-functions


/req/geometry-extension-dggs/query-functions-non-sf


/req/geometry-extension-dggs/srid-function


/req/geometry-extension-dggs/sa-functions


/req/geometry-extension-dggs/dggs-literal


/req/geometry-extension-dggs/dggs-literal-empty


/req/geometry-extension-dggs/geometry-as-dggs-literal


/req/geometry-extension-dggs/asDGGS-function

This section establishes the Requirements class for representing Discrete Global Grid System (DGGS) Geometry data as RDF literals. The form of geometry data representation is specific to individual DGGS implementations: known DGGSes are not compatible or even very similar.

The Requirements class defines one RDFS Datatype http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#dggsLiteral and one property, http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#asDGGS.

10.8.5.1.  RDFS Datatype: geo:dggsLiteral

The datatype geo:dggsLiteral is used to contain the Discrete Global Grid System (DGGS) serialization of a Geometry.

geo:dggsLiteral
    a rdfs:Datatype ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "DGGS Literal"@en ;
    skos:definition "A textual serialization of a Discrete Global Grid System (DGGS) Geometry object."@en
.

Valid DGGS Literal instances are formed by encoding Geometry information according to a specific DGGS implementation. The specific implementation should be indicated by use of a subclass of the geo:dggsLiteral datatype.

Requirement 35: DGGS Literal

Identifier/req/geometry-extension-dggs/dggs-literal
Statement

All RDFS Literals of type geo:dggsLiteral shall consist of an IRI identifying the specific DGGS and a representation of the DGGS geometry data. The IRI shall be enclosed in angled brackets (< & >) followed by whitespace as a separator, and then the DGGS geometry data, formulated according to the identified DGGS.

The following ABNFIETF5234 syntax specification formally defines this literal:

dggsLiteral ::= iri-and-whitespace dggs-geomety-data

iri-and-whitespace = "<" IRI ">" LWSP

The token iri-and-whitespace is an IRI and whitespace. The token IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifier) is essentially a web address and is defined in [IETF3987]. The token LWSP is one or more whitespace characters, as defined in IETF5234. dggs-geometry-data is geometry data formulated according to the DGGS identified by IRI.

An example of a DGGS literal for the AusPIX DGGS could be:

"<https://w3id.org/dggs/auspix> CELL (R3234)"^^geo:dggsLiteral

Where AusPIX is identified with the IRI https://w3id.org/dggs/auspix and CELL (R3234) is the representation of a geometry according to AusPIX.

NOTE:    What R3234 means, or the meaning of any other element within a DGGS’ geometry data is not handled by GeoSPARQL, just as GeoPSARQL does not delve into the internals of other Geometry formats such as WKT or GeoJSON.

Requirement 36: Empty DGGS Literal

Identifier/req/geometry-extension-dggs/dggs-literal-empty
Statement

An empty RDFS Literal of type geo:dggsLiteral, shall be interpreted as an empty geo:Geometry.

The following ABNFIETF5234 syntax specification formally defines this literal:

dggsLiteral ::= iri-and-space dggs-geometry-data

iri-and-whitespace = "<" IRI ">" LWSP / ""

The tokens used above are as per the DGGS ABNF above.

10.8.5.2.  Property: geo:asDGGS

The property geo:asDGGS is defined to link a Geometry with its DGGS serialization.

Requirement 37: asDGGS Property

Identifier/req/geometry-extension-dggs/geometry-as-dggs-literal
Statement

Implementations shall allow the RDF property geo:asDGGS to be used in SPARQL graph patterns.

geo:asDGGS
    a rdf:Property, owl:DatatypeProperty ;
    rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasSerialization ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy geo: ;
    skos:prefLabel "as DGGS"@en ;
    skos:definition "A DGGS serialization of a Geometry."@en ;
    rdfs:domain geo:Geometry ;
    rdfs:range geo:dggsLiteral ;
.

10.8.5.3.  Function: geof:asDGGS

geof:asDGGS (geom: ogc:geomLiteral, specificDggsDatatype: xsd:anyURI): geo:DggsLiteral

The function geof:asDGGS converts geom to an equivalent DGGS representation, formulated according to the specific DGGS literal indicated by the IRI required to be present in the DGGS literal.

Requirement 38: asDGGS Function

Identifier/req/geometry-extension-dggs/asDGGS-function
Statement

Implementations shall support geof:asDGGS as a SPARQL extension function.

10.9.  Non-topological Query Functions

This Requirements class defines SPARQL functions for performing non-topological spatial operations.

Requirement 39: Non-topological Query Functions (Simple Features)

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/query-functions
Statement

Implementations shall support the functions geof:boundarygeof:boundingCircle, geof:metricBuffer, geof:buffer, geof:centroid, geof:convexHull, geof:concaveHull, geof:coordinateDimension, geof:difference, geof:dimension, geof:metricDistance, geof:distance, geof:envelope, geof:geometryType, geof:intersection, geof:is3D, geof:isEmpty, geof:isMeasured, geof:isSimple, geof:spatialDimension, geof:symDifference, geof:transform and geof:union as SPARQL extension functions, consistent with definitions of these functions in Simple Features [OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1, for non-DGGS geometry literals.

Requirement 40: Non-topological Query Functions (Non Simple Features)

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/query-functions-non-sf
Statement

Implementations shall support the functions geof:metricLength, geof:length, geof:metricPerimeter, geof:perimeter, geof:metricArea, geof:area, geof:geometryN, geof:maxX, geof:maxY, geof:maxZ, geof:minX, geof:minY, geof:minZ and geof:numGeometries as SPARQL extension functions which are defined in this standard, for non-DGGS geometry literals.

Functions from this Requirements class are listed below, alphabetically.

10.9.1.  Function notes

These notes apply to all of the following functions in this section.

An invocation of any of the following functions with invalid arguments produces an error. An invalid argument includes any of the following:

  • An argument of an unexpected type

  • An invalid geometry literal value

  • A non-fitting geometry type for the given function

  • A geometry literal from a spatial reference system that is incompatible with the spatial reference system used for calculations

  • An invalid unit IRI

A more detailed description of expected inputs and expected outputs of the given functions is shown in Annex B.

Unless otherwise stated in the function definition, the following behaviors should be followed by all SPARQL extension functions defined in the GeoSPARQL standard:

  • Functions returning a new geometry literal should follow the literal format of the first geometry literal input parameter. If no geometry literal input parameter is present, a WKT literal shall be returned.

  • Functions returning a new geometry literal should follow the SRS defined in the literal format of the first geometry literal input parameter. If no geometry literal input parameter is present, a geometry result should be returned in the CRS84 SRS.

For further discussion of the effects of errors during FILTER evaluation, consult Section 1710 of the SPARQL specification SPARQL.

Note that returning values instead of raising an error serves as an extension mechanism of SPARQL.

From Section 17.3.111 of the SPARQL specification SPARQL:

SPARQL language extensions may provide additional associations between operators and operator functions; …​ No additional operator may yield a result that replaces any result other …​ . The consequence of this rule is that SPARQL FILTER s will produce at least the same intermediate bindings after applying a FILTER as an unextended implementation.

This extension mechanism enables GeoSPARQL implementations to simultaneously support multiple geometry serializations. For example, a system that supports WKT Literal serializations may also support GML Literal serializations and consequently would not raise an error if it encounters multiple geometry datatypes while processing a given query.

NOTE:    Several non-topological query functions use a unit of measure IRI. See the Recommendation for units of measure. Also, the OGC has recommended units of measure vocabularies for use, see the OGC Definitions Server12.

10.9.2.  Function: geof:metricArea

geof:metricArea (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:double

The function geof:metricArea returns the area of geom in square meters. Must return zero for all geometry types other than Polygon. This function is similar to geof:area but does not need a specification of measurement unit.

10.9.3.  Function: geof:area

geof:area (geom: ogc:geomLiteral, units: xsd:anyURI): rdf:Resource

The function geof:area returns the area of geom. Must return zero for all geometry types other than Polygon. This function is similar to geof:metricArea, which does not need a specification of measurement unit.

10.9.4.  Function: geof:boundary

geof:boundary (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:boundary returns the closure of the boundary of geom. Calculations are in the spatial reference system of geom.

10.9.5.  Function: geof:boundingCircle

geof:boundingCircle (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:boundingCircle returns the minimum bounding circle around geom. Calculations are in the spatial reference system of geom.

10.9.6.  Function: geof:metricBuffer

geof:metricBuffer (geom: ogc:geomLiteral,
                   radius: xsd:double): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:metricBuffer returns a geometric object that represents all Points whose distance from geom is less than or equal to the radius measured in meters. Calculations are in the coordinate reference system of geom. This function is similar to geof:buffer, but does not need a specification of measurement unit.

10.9.7.  Function: geof:buffer

geof:buffer (geom: ogc:geomLiteral,
             radius: xsd:double,
             units: xsd:anyURI): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:buffer returns a geometric object that represents all Points whose distance from geom is less than or equal to the radius measured in units. Calculations are in the spatial reference system of geom. This function is similar to geof:metricBuffer, which does not need a specification of measurement unit.

10.9.8.  Function: geof:centroid

geof:centroid (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:centroid returns the mathematical centroid of geom. The centroid point does not have to be part of the surface it is derived from.

10.9.9.  Function: geof:convexHull

geof:convexHull (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:convexHull returns a geometric object that represents all Points in the convex hull of geom. Calculations are in the spatial reference system of geom.

10.9.10.  Function: geof:concaveHull

geof:concaveHull (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:concaveHull returns a geometric object that represents all Points in the concave hull of geom. Calculations are in the spatial reference system of geom. Various implementers use parameters to calculate a concave hull. As such, two implementations may return different results from their concave hull functions for the same geometry. Implementers should make clear any default values used to calculate a concave hull in their documentation.

10.9.11.  Function: geof:coordinateDimension

geof:coordinateDimension (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:integer

The function geof:coordinateDimension returns the coordinate dimension of geom.

10.9.12.  Function: geof:difference

geof:difference (geom1: ogc:geomLiteral,
                 geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:difference returns a geometric object that represents all Points in the set difference of geom1 with geom2. Calculations are in the spatial reference system of geom1.

10.9.13.  Function: geof:dimension

geof:dimension (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:integer

The function geof:dimensions returns the dimension of geom. In non-homogeneous geometry collections, this will return the largest topological dimension of the contained objects.

10.9.14.  Function: geof:metricDistance

geof:metricDistance (geom1: ogc:geomLiteral,
                     geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:double

The function geof:metricDistance returns the shortest distance in meters between any two Points in the two geometric objects. Calculations are in the coordinate reference system of geom1. This function is similar to geof:distance, but does not need a specification of measurement unit.

10.9.15.  Function: geof:distance

geof:distance (geom1: ogc:geomLiteral,
               geom2: ogc:geomLiteral,
               units: xsd:anyURI): xsd:double

The function geof:distance returns the shortest distance in units between any two Points in the two geometric objects. Calculations are in the spatial reference system of geom1. This function is similar to geof:metricDistance, which does not need a specification of measurement unit.

10.9.16.  Function: geof:envelope

geof:envelope (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:envelope returns the minimum bounding box — a rectangle — of geom. Calculations are in the spatial reference system of geom.

10.9.17.  Function: geof:geometryN

geof:geometryN (geom: ogc:geomLiteral, geomindex: xsd:integer): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:geometryN returns the nth geometry of geom if it is a GeometryCollection that is defined in a literal type (such as in the case of a sf:GeometryCollection) or geom if it is a Geometry. This function is not applicable to the type geo:GeometryCollection, as elements in geo:GeometryCollection are not guaranteed to be ordered.

10.9.18.  Function: geof:geometryType

geof:geometryType (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:anyURI

The function geof:geometryType returns the URI of the subtype of Geometry of which this geometric object is an member. No attempt to reconcile different geometry subtypes across all support literals need be made.

10.9.19.  Function: geof:intersection

geof:intersection (geom1: ogc:geomLiteral,
                   geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:intersection returns a geometric object that represents all Points in the intersection of geom1 with geom2. Calculations are in the spatial reference system of geom1.

10.9.20.  Function: geof:is3D

geof:is3D (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean

The function geof:is3D Returns true if geom has z coordinate values.

10.9.21.  Function: geof:isEmpty

geof:isEmpty (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean

The function geof:isEmpty returns true if geom is an empty geometry, i.e. contains no coordinates.

10.9.22.  Function: geof:isMeasured

geof:isMeasured (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean

The function geof:isMeasured returns true if geom has m coordinate values.

10.9.23.  Function: geof:isSimple

geof:isSimple (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean

The function geof:isSimple returns true if geom is a simple geometry, i.e. has no anomalous geometric points, such as self intersection or self tangency.

10.9.24.  Function: geof:metricLength

geof:metricLength (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:double

The function geof:metricLength returns the length of geom in meters. The longest length from any one dimension is returned. This is for example the length of a line from its beginning point to its endpoint or the length of the boundary of a polygon. This function is similar to geof:length but does not need a specification of measurement unit.

10.9.25.  Function: geof:length

geof:length (geom: ogc:geomLiteral, units: xsd:anyURI): xsd:double

The function geof:length returns the length of geom. The longest length from any one dimension is returned. This function is similar to geof:metricLength, which does not need a specification of measurement unit.

10.9.26.  Function: geof:maxX

geof:maxX (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:double

The function geof:maxX returns the maximum X coordinate for geom.

10.9.27.  Function: geof:maxY

geof:maxY (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:double

The function geof:maxY returns the maximum Y coordinate for geom.

10.9.28.  Function: geof:maxZ

geof:maxZ (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:double

The function geof:maxZ returns the maximum Z coordinate for geom.

10.9.29.  Function: geof:minX

geof:minX (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:double

The function geof:minX returns the minimum X coordinate for geom.

10.9.30.  Function: geof:minY

geof:minY (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:double

The function geof:minY returns the minimum Y coordinate for geom.

10.9.31.  Function: geof:minZ

geof:minZ (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:double

The function geof:minZ returns the minimum Z coordinate for geom.

10.9.32.  Function: geof:numGeometries

geof:numGeometries (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:integer

The function geof:numGeometries returns the number of geometries of geom.

10.9.33.  Function: geof:perimeter

geof:perimeter (geom: ogc:geomLiteral, unit: xsd:anyURI): xsd:double

The function geof:perimeter returns the perimeter of geom in the unit specified by the unit parameter for areal geometries. For non-areal geometries the result is equivalent to geof:hasLength.

10.9.34.  Function: geof:metricPerimeter

geof:metricPerimeter (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:double

The function geof:metricPerimeter returns the perimeter of geom. It is similar to the function geof:perimeter, but always returns the result in meters.

10.9.35.  Function: geof:spatialDimension

geof:spatialDimension (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:integer

The function geof:spatialDimension returns the spatial dimension of geom.

10.9.36.  Function: geof:symDifference

geof:symDifference (geom1: ogc:geomLiteral,
                    geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:symDifference returns a geometric object that represents all Points in the set symmetric difference of geom1 with geom2. Calculations are in the spatial reference system of geom1.

10.9.37.  Function: geof:transform

geof:transform (geom: ogc:geomLiteral, srsIRI: xsd:anyURI): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:transform converts geom to a spatial reference system defined by srsIRI. The function raises an error if a transformation is not mathematically possible.

NOTE:    We recommend that implementers use the same literal type as a result of this function as the type of the input literal.

10.9.38.  Function: geof:union

geof:union (geom1: ogc:geomLiteral,
            geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

This function geof:union returns a geometric object that represents all Points in the union of geom1 with geom2. Calculations are in the spatial reference system of geom1.

Requirement 41: SRID Function

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/srid-function
Statement

Implementations shall support geof:getSRID as a SPARQL extension function.

10.9.39.  Function: geof:getSRID

geof:getSRID (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:anyURI

The function geof:getSRID returns the spatial reference system IRI for geom.

10.10.  Spatial Aggregate Functions

This clause defines SPARQL functions for performing spatial aggregations of data.

Requirement 42: Spatial Aggregate Functions

Identifier/req/geometry-extension/sa-functions
Statement

Implementations shall support geof:aggBoundingBox, geof:aggBoundingCircle, geof:aggCentroid, geof:aggConcaveHull, geof:aggConvexHull and geof:aggUnion as a SPARQL extension functions.

10.10.1.  Function: geof:aggBoundingBox

geof:aggBoundingBox (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:aggBoundingBox calculates a minimum bounding box — rectangle — of the set of given geometries.

10.10.2.  Function: geof:aggBoundingCircle

geof:aggBoundingCircle (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:aggBoundingCircle calculates a minimum bounding circle of the set of given geometries.

10.10.3.  Function: geof:aggCentroid

geof:aggCentroid (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:aggCentroid calculates the centroid of the set of given geometries.

10.10.4.  Function: geof:aggConcaveHull

geof:aggConcaveHull (geom: ogc:geomLiteral, targetPercent: xsd:double): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:aggConcaveHull calculates the concave hull of the set of given geometries.

10.10.5.  Function: geof:aggConvexHull

geof:aggConvexHull (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:aggConvexHull calculates the convex hull of the set of given geometries.

NOTE:    This function is similar in name to geof:convexHull used to calculate the convex hull of just one geometry.

10.10.6.  Function: geof:aggUnion

geof:aggUnion (geom: ogc:geomLiteral): ogc:geomLiteral

The function geof:aggUnion calculates the union of the set of given geometries.

NOTE:    This function is similar in name to geof:union used to calculate the union of just two geometries.

11.  Geometry Topology Extension

This clause establishes the Geometry Topology Extension parameterized Requirements class with base IRI /req/geometry-topology-extension, which defines a collection of topological query functions that operate on geometry literals. These Requirements are parameterized to give implementations flexibility in the topological relation families and geometry serializations that they choose to support. These Requirements have a single corresponding conformance class Geometry Topology Extension, with IRI /conf/geometry-topology-extension.

The Dimensionally Extended Nine Intersection Model (DE-9IM) DE-9IM has been used to define the relation tested by the query functions introduced in this section. Each query function is associated with a defining DE-9IM intersection pattern. Possible pattern values are:

In the following descriptions, the notation X/Y is used to denote applying a spatial relation to geometry types X and Y (i.e., xrelationy where x is of type X and y is of type Y). The symbol P is used for 0-dimensional geometries (e.g., points). The symbol L is used for 1- dimensional geometries (e.g. lines), and the symbol A is used for 2-dimensional geometries (e.g., polygons). Consult the Simple Features specification [OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1 for a more detailed description of DE-9IM intersection patterns.

Requirements class 4: Geometry Topology Extension

Identifier/req/geometry-topology-extension
Target typeImplementation Specification
Conformance classConformance class A.5: /conf/geometry-topology-extension
requirement

/req/geometry-topology-extension/relate-query-function


/req/geometry-topology-extension/sf-query-functions


/req/geometry-topology-extension/eh-query-functions


/req/geometry-topology-extension/rcc8-query-functions

11.1.  Parameters

  • relation_family: Specifies the set of topological spatial relations to support.

  • serialization: Specifies the serialization standard to use for geometry literals.

  • version: Specifies the version of the serialization format used.

11.2.  Common Query Functions

Requirement 43: Relate Query Function

Identifier/req/geometry-topology-extension/relate-query-function
Statement

Implementations shall support geof:relate as a SPARQL extension function, consistent with the relate operator defined in Simple Features [OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1.

geof:relate (geom1: ogc:geomLiteral,
             geom2: ogc:geomLiteral,
             pattern-matrix: xsd:string): xsd:boolean

Returns true if the spatial relationship between geom1 and geom2 corresponds to one with acceptable values for the specified pattern-matrix. Otherwise, this function returns false. pattern-matrix represents a DE-9IM intersection pattern consisting of T (true) and F (false) values. The spatial reference system for geom1 is used for spatial calculations.

11.3.  Simple Features Relation Family

This clause establishes Requirements for the Simple Features relation family.

Requirement 44: Simple Features Query Functions

Identifier/req/geometry-topology-extension/sf-query-functions
Statement

Implementations shall support geof:sfEquals, geof:sfDisjoint, geof:sfIntersects, geof:sfTouches, geof:sfCrosses, geof:sfWithin, geof:sfContains and geof:sfOverlaps as SPARQL extension functions, consistent with their corresponding DE-9IM intersection patterns, as defined by Simple Features [OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1.

Boolean query functions defined for the Simple Features relation family, along with their associated DE-9IM intersection patterns, are shown in Table 6 below. Multi-row intersection patterns should be interpreted as a logical OR of each row. Each function accepts two arguments (geom1 and geom2) of the geometry literal serialization type specified by serialization and version. Each function returns an xsd:boolean value of true if the specified relation exists between geom1 and geom2 and returns false otherwise. In each case, the spatial reference system of geom1 is used for spatial calculations.

Table 6 — Simple Features Query Functions

Query FunctionDefining DE-9IM Intersection Pattern
geof:sfEquals(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(TFFFTFFFT)
geof:sfDisjoint(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(FF*FF****)
geof:sfIntersects(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(FT******* F**T***** F***T****)
geof:sfTouches(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(FT******* F**T***** F***T****)
geof:sfCrosses(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(T*T***T**) for P/L, P/A, L/A; (0*T***T**) for L/L
geof:sfWithin(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(T*F**F***)
geof:sfContains(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(T*****FF*)
geof:sfOverlaps(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(T*T***T**) for A/A, P/P; (1*T***T**) for L/L

11.4.  Egenhofer Relation Family

This clause establishes Requirements for the Egenhofer relation family. Consult references FORMAL and CATEG for a more detailed discussion of Egenhofer relations.

Requirement 45: Egenhofer Query Functions

Identifier/req/geometry-topology-extension/eh-query-functions
Statement

Implementations shall support geof:ehEquals, geof:ehDisjoint, geof:ehMeet, geof:ehOverlap, geof:ehCovers, geof:ehCoveredBy, geof:ehInside and geof:ehContains as SPARQL extension functions, consistent with their corresponding DE-9IM intersection patterns, as defined by Simple Features [OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1.

Boolean query functions defined for the Egenhofer relation family, along with their associated DE-9IM intersection patterns, are shown in Table 7 below. Multi-row intersection patterns should be interpreted as a logical OR of each row. Each function accepts two arguments (geom1 and geom2) of the geometry literal serialization type specified by serialization and version. Each function returns an xsd:boolean value of true if the specified relation exists between geom1 and geom2 and returns false otherwise. In each case, the spatial reference system of geom1 is used for spatial calculations.

Table 7 — Egenhofer Query Functions

Query FunctionDefining DE-9IM Intersection Pattern
geof:ehEquals(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(TFFFTFFFT)
geof:ehDisjoint(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(FF*FF****)
geof:ehMeet(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(FT******* F**T***** F***T****)
geof:ehOverlap(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(T*T***T**)
geof:ehCovers(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(T*TFT*FF*)
geof:ehCoveredBy(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(TFF*TFT**)
geof:ehInside(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(TFF*FFT**)
geof:ehContains(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(T*TFF*FF*)

11.5.  RCC8 Relation Family

This clause establishes Requirements for the RCC8 relation family. Consult references QUAL and LOGIC for a more detailed discussion of RCC8 relations.

Requirement 46: RCC8 Query Functions

Identifier/req/geometry-topology-extension/rcc8-query-functions
Statement

Implementations shall support geof:rcc8eq, geof:rcc8dc, geof:rcc8ec, geof:rcc8po, geof:rcc8tppi, geof:rcc8tpp, geof:rcc8ntpp and geof:rcc8ntppi as SPARQL extension functions, consistent with their corresponding DE-9IM intersection patterns, as defined by Simple Features [OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1.

Boolean query functions defined for the RCC8 relation family, along with their associated DE-9IM intersection patterns, are shown in Table 8 below. Each function accepts two arguments (geom1 and geom2) of the geometry literal serialization type specified by serialization and version. Each function returns an xsd:boolean value of true if the specified relation exists between geom1 and geom2 and returns false otherwise. In each case, the spatial reference system of geom1 is used for spatial calculations.

Table 8 — RCC8 Query Functions

Query FunctionDefining DE-9IM Intersection Pattern
geof:rcc8eq(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(TFFFTFFFT)
geof:rcc8dc(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(FFTFFTTTT)
geof:rcc8ec(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(FFTFTTTTT)
geof:rcc8po(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(TTTTTTTTT)
geof:rcc8tppi(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(TTTFTTFFT)
geof:rcc8tpp(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(TFFTTFTTT)
geof:rcc8ntpp(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(TFFTFFTTT)
geof:rcc8ntppi(geom1: ogc:geomLiteral, geom2: ogc:geomLiteral): xsd:boolean(TTTFFTFFT)

12.  RDFS Entailment Extension

This clause establishes the RDFS Entailment Extension parameterized Requirements class with base IRI /req/rdfs-entailment-extension, which defines a mechanism for matching implicitly-derived RDF triples in GeoSPARQL queries. This class is parameterized to give implementations flexibility in the topological relation families and geometry types that they choose to support. These Requirements have a single corresponding conformance class RDFS Entailment Extension, with IRI /conf/rdfs-entailment-extension.

12.1.  Parameters

  • relation_family: Specifies the set of topological spatial relations to support.

  • serialization: Specifies the serialization standard to use for geometry literals.

  • version: Specifies the version of the serialization format used.

12.2.  Common Requirements

The basic mechanism for supporting RDFS entailment has been defined by the W3C SPARQL 1.1 RDFS Entailment Regime SPARQLENT.

Requirement 47: Basic Graph Pattern

Identifier/req/rdfs-entailment-extension/bgp-rdfs-ent
Statement

Basic graph pattern matching shall use the semantics defined by the RDFS Entailment Regime SPARQLENT.

12.3.  WKT Serialization

This section establishes the requirements for representing geometry data in RDF based on WKT as defined by Simple Features [OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1.

12.3.1.  Geometry Class Hierarchy

The Simple Features specification presents a geometry class hierarchy. It is straightforward to represent this class hierarchy in RDFS and OWL by constructing IRIs for geometry classes using the following pattern: http://www.opengis.net/ont/sf#{geometry class} and by asserting appropriate rdfs:subClassOf statements. The Simple Features Vocabulary resource within GeoSPARQL 1.1 (sibling resource to this specification) does this. The following list gives the class hierarchy with each indented item being a subclass of the item in the line above. The class hierarchy starts with GeoSPARQL’s geo:Geometry class of which sf:Geometry is a subclass:

geo:Geometry
    sf:Geometry
        sf:Curve
            sf:LineString
                sf:Line
                sf:LinearRing
        sf:GeometryCollection
            sf:MultiCurve
                sf:MultiLineString
            sf:MultiPoint
            sf:MultiSurface
                sf:MultiPolygon
        sf:Point
        sf:Surface
            sf:Polygon
                sf:Envelope
                sf:Triangle
            sf:PolyhedralSurface
                sf:TIN

The following example RDF snippet below encodes the Simple Features vocabulary Polygon class:

sf:Polygon
    a rdfs:Class, owl:Class ;
    rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://www.opengis.net/ont/sf> ;
    skos:prefLabel "Polygon"@en ;
    rdfs:subClassOf sf:Surface ;
    skos:definition "A planar surface defined by 1 exterior boundary and 0 or
                    more interior boundaries"@en ;
.

Requirement 48: WKT Geometry Types

Identifier/req/rdfs-entailment-extension/wkt-geometry-types
Statement

Implementations shall support graph patterns involving terms from an RDFS/OWL class hierarchy of geometry types consistent with the one in the specified version of Simple Features [OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1.

12.4.  GML Serialization

This section establishes Requirements for representing geometry data in RDF based on GML as defined by Geography Markup Language Encoding Standard OGC07-036.

12.4.1.  Geometry Class Hierarchy

An RDF/OWL class hierarchy can be generated from the GML schema that implements GM_Object by constructing IRIs for geometry classes using the following pattern: http://www.opengis.net/ont/gml#{GML Element} and by asserting appropriate rdfs:subClassOf statements.

The example RDF snippet below encodes the Polygon class from GML 3.2.

gml:Polygon
    a rdfs:Class, owl:Class ;
    skos:prefLabel "Polygon"@en ;
    rdfs:subClassOf gml:SurfacePatch ;
    skos:definition "A planar surface defined by 1 exterior boundary and 0 or
                    more interior boundaries."@en ;
.

Requirement 49: GML Geometry Types

Identifier/req/rdfs-entailment-extension/gml-geometry-types
Statement

Implementations shall support graph patterns involving terms from an RDFS/OWL class hierarchy of geometry types consistent with the GML schema that implements GM_Object using the specified version of GML OGC07-036.

13.  Query Rewrite Extension

This clause establishes the Query Rewrite Extension parameterized Requirements class with base IRI /req/query-rewrite-extension, which has a single corresponding conformance class Query Rewrite Extension, with IRI /conf/query-rewrite-extension. These Requirements define a set of RIF rules RIF that use topological extension functions defined in [geometry_extension] to establish the existence of direct topological predicates defined in [vocabulary_extension]. One possible implementation strategy is to transform a given query by expanding a triple pattern involving a direct spatial predicate into a series of triple patterns and an invocation of the corresponding extension function as specified in the RIF rule.

Requirements class 5: Query Rewrite Extension

Identifier/req/query-rewrite-extension
Target typeImplementation Specification
Conformance classConformance class A.7: /conf/query-rewrite-extension
requirement

/req/query-rewrite-extension/sf-query-rewrite


/req/query-rewrite-extension/eh-query-rewrite


/req/query-rewrite-extension/rcc8-query-rewrite

The following rule specified using the RIF Core Dialect RIFCORE and shown in Presentation Syntax is used as a template to describe rules in the remainder of this clause. ogc:relation is used as a placeholder for the spatial relation IRIs defined in Clause 7, and ogc:function is used as a placeholder for the spatial functions defined in [geometry_extension]. ogc:asGeomLiteral is used to indicate one of the properties that link geo:Geometry instances to serialisations, such as geo:asWKT or geo:asGeoJSON. The variables ?so1 & ?so2 represent geo:SpatialObject instances (either geo:Feature or geo:Geometry instances), ?g1 & ?g2geo:Geometry instances only and ?g1Serial & ?g2Serial represent geo:Geometry instance serializations, e.g., geo:asWKT etc. literals.

Forall ?so1 ?so2 ?g1 ?g2 ?g1Serial ?g2Serial (
    ?so1[ogc:relation->?so2] :- Or (
        And (
            # feature - feature rule
            ?so1[geo:hasDefaultGeometry->?g1]
                ?so2[geo:hasDefaultGeometry->?g2]
                ?g1[ogc:asGeomLiteral->?g1Serial]
                ?g2[ogc:asGeomLiteral->?g2Serial]
                External(ogc:function(?g1Serial, ?g2Serial))
        )
        And (
            # feature - geometry rule
            ?so1[geo:hasDefaultGeometry->?g1]
                ?g1[ogc:asGeomLiteral->?g1Serial]
                ?so2[ogc:asGeomLiteral->?g2Serial]
                External(ogc:function(?g1Serial, ?g2Serial))
        )
        And (
            # geometry - feature rule
            ?so1[ogc:asGeomLiteral->?g1Serial]
                ?so2[geo:hasDefaultGeometry->?g2]
                ?g2[ogc:asGeomLiteral->?g2Serial]
                External(ogc:function(?g1Serial, ?g2Serial))
        )
        And (
            # geometry - geometry rule
            ?so1[ogc:asGeomLiteral->?g1Serial]
                ?so2[ogc:asGeomLiteral->?g2Serial]
                External(ogc:function(?g1Serial, ?g2Serial))
        )
    )
)

13.1.  Parameters

  • relation_family: Specifies the set of topological spatial relations to support.

  • serialization: Specifies the serialization standard to use for geometry literals.

  • version: Specifies the version of the serialization format used.

13.2.  Simple Features Relation Family

This clause defines Requirements for the Simple Features relation family. Table 9 specifies the function and property substitutions for each rule in the Simple Features relation family.

Requirement 50: Simple Features Query Transformation Rules

Identifier/req/query-rewrite-extension/sf-query-rewrite
Statement

Basic graph pattern matching shall use the semantics defined by the RIF Core Entailment Regime SPARQLENT for the RIF rules RIFCOREgeor:sfEquals, geor:sfDisjoint, geor:sfIntersects, geor:sfTouches, geor:sfCrosses, geor:sfWithin, geor:sfContains and geor:sfOverlaps.

Table 9 — Simple Features Query Transformation Rules

Ruleogc:relationogc:function
geor:sfEqualsgeo:sfEqualsgeof:sfEquals
geor:sfDisjointgeo:sfDisjointgeof:sfDisjoint
geor:sfIntersectsgeo:sfIntersectsgeof:sfIntersects
geor:sfTouchesgeo:sfTouchesgeof:sfTouches
geor:sfCrossesgeo:sfCrossesgeof:sfCrosses
geor:sfWithingeo:sfWithingeof:sfWithin
geor:sfContainsgeo:sfContainsgeof:sfContains
geor:sfOverlapsgeo:sfOverlapsgeof:sfOverlaps

13.3.  Egenhofer Relation Family

This clause defines Requirements for the Egenhofer relation family. Table 10 specifies the function and property substitutions for each rule in the Egenhofer relation family.

Requirement 51: Egenhofer Query Transformation Rules

Identifier/req/query-rewrite-extension/eh-query-rewrite
Statement

Basic graph pattern matching shall use the semantics defined by the RIF Core Entailment Regime SPARQLENT for the RIF rules RIFCOREgeor:ehEquals, geor:ehDisjoint, geor:ehMeet, geor:ehOverlap, geor:ehCovers, geor:ehCoveredBy, geor:ehInside and geor:ehContains.

Table 10 — Egenhofer Query Transformation Rules

Ruleogc:relationogc:function
geor:ehEqualsgeo:ehEqualsgeof:ehEquals
geor:ehDisjointgeo:ehDisjointgeof:ehDisjoint
geor:ehMeetgeo:ehMeetgeof:ehMeet
geor:ehOverlapgeo:ehOverlapgeof:ehOverlap
geor:ehCoversgeo:ehCoversgeof:ehCovers
geor:ehCoveredBygeo:ehCoveredBygeof:ehCoveredBy
geor:ehInsidegeo:ehInsidegeof:ehInside
geor:ehContainsgeo:ehContainsgeof:ehContains

13.4.  RCC8 Relation Family

This clause defines Requirements for the RCC8 relation family. Table 11 specifies the function and property substitutions for each rule in the RCC8 relation family.

Requirement 52: RCC8 Query Transformation Rules

Identifier/req/query-rewrite-extension/rcc8-query-rewrite
Statement

Basic graph pattern matching shall use the semantics defined by the RIF Core Entailment Regime SPARQLENT for the RIF rules RIFCOREgeor:rcc8eq, geor:rcc8dc, geor:rcc8ec, geor:rcc8po, geor:rcc8tppi, geor:rcc8tpp, geor:rcc8ntpp and geor:rcc8ntppi.

Table 11 — RCC8 Query Transformation Rules

Ruleogc:relationogc:function
geor:rcc8eqgeo:rcc8eqgeof:rcc8eq
geor:rcc8dcgeo:rcc8dcgeof:rcc8dc
geor:rcc8ecgeo:rcc8ecgeof:rcc8ec
geor:rcc8pogeo:rcc8pogeof:rcc8po
geor:rcc8tppigeo:rcc8tppigeof:rcc8tppi
geor:rcc8tppgeo:rcc8tppgeof:rcc8tpp
geor:rcc8ntppgeo:rcc8ntppgeof:rcc8ntpp
geor:rcc8ntppigeo:rcc8ntppigeof:rcc8ntppi

13.5.  Special Considerations

The applicability of GeoSPARQL rules in certain circumstances has intentionally been left undefined.

The first situation arises for triple patterns with unbound predicates. Consider the query pattern below:

{my:feature1?pmy:feature2}

When using a query transformation strategy, this triple pattern could invoke none of the GeoSPARQL rules or all of the rules. Implementations are free to support either of these alternatives.

The second situation arises when supporting GeoSPARQL rules in the presence of RDFS Entailment. The existence of a topological relation (possibly derived from a GeoSPARQL rule) can entail other RDF triples. For example, if geo:sfOverlaps has been defined as an rdfs:subPropertyOf the property my:overlaps, and the RDF triple my:feature1 geo:sfOverlaps my:feature2 has been derived from a GeoSPARQL rule, then the RDF triple my:feature1 my:overlaps my:feature2 can be entailed. Implementations may support such entailments but are not required to.

14.  Future Work

Many future extensions of this standard are possible and, since the release of GeoSPARQL 1.0, many extensions have been made.

The GeoSPARQL 1.1 release incorporates many additions requested of the GeoSPARQL 1.0 Standard, including the use of particular new serializations: where GeoSPARQL 1.0 supported GML & WKT, GeoSPARQL 1.1 also supports GeoJSON, KML and a generic DGGS literal. GeoSPARQL 1.1 also supports spatial scalar properties.

Plans for future GeoSPARQL releases have been suggested but won’t be articulated here. Instead they will be discussed and decided upon by the OGC GeoSPARQL Standards Working Group and related groups. Readers of this document are encouraged to seek out those groups’ lists of issues and standards change requests rather than looking for ideas here that will surely age badly.


Annex A
(normative)
Abstract Test Suite

A.0. Overview

This Annex lists tests for the Conformance Classes defined in the main body sections of this Specification with links to their Requirements and test purpose method and type. Conformance classes may be used to signify the compatibility of a given implementation to parts of the GeoSPARQL standard. They may be stated as part of a SPARQL 1.1 Service Description SPARQLSERVDESC .

A.1.  Conformance Class: Core

Conformance class A.1: Core

Identifier/conf/core
Requirements class/req/core
Conformance testsAbstract test A.1: /conf/core/sparql-protocol
Abstract test A.2: /conf/core/spatial-object-class
Abstract test A.3: /conf/core/feature-class
Abstract test A.4: /conf/core/spatial-object-collection-class
Abstract test A.5: /conf/core/feature-collection-class
Abstract test A.6: /conf/core/spatial-object-properties

A.1.1.  SPARQL

Abstract test A.1

Identifier/conf/core/sparql-protocol
RequirementRequirement 1: /req/core/sparql-protocol
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that the implementation accepts SPARQL queries and returns the correct results in the correct format, according to the SPARQL Query Language for RDF, the SPARQL Protocol for RDF and SPARQL Query Results XML Format W3C specifications.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

[sparql-protocol]

A.1.2.  RDF Classes & Properties

Abstract test A.2

Identifier/conf/core/spatial-object-class
RequirementRequirement 2: /req/core/spatial-object-class
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving geo:SpatialObject return the correct result on a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 8.2.1

Abstract test A.3

Identifier/conf/core/feature-class
RequirementRequirement 3: /req/core/feature-class
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving geo:Feature return the correct result on a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 8.2.2

Abstract test A.4

Identifier/conf/core/spatial-object-collection-class
RequirementRequirement 4: /req/core/spatial-object-collection-class
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving geo:SpatialObjectCollection return the correct result on a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 8.2.3

Abstract test A.5

Identifier/conf/core/feature-collection-class
RequirementRequirement 5: /req/core/feature-collection-class
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving geo:FeatureCollection return the correct result on a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 8.2.4

Abstract test A.6

Identifier/conf/core/spatial-object-properties
RequirementRequirement 6: /req/core/spatial-object-properties
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving these following properties return the correct result for a test dataset: geo:hasSize, geo:hasMetricSize, geo:hasLength, geo:hasMetricLength, geo:hasPerimeterLength, geo:hasMetricPerimeterLength, geo:hasArea, geo:hasMetricArea, geo:hasVolume and geo:hasMetricVolume

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 8.3

A.2.  Conformance Class: Topology Vocabulary Extension

Conformance class A.2: Topology Vocabulary Extension

Identifier/conf/topology-vocab-extension
Requirements classRequirements class 1: /req/topology-vocab-extension
Conformance testsAbstract test A.7: /conf/topology-vocab-extension/sf-spatial-relations
Abstract test A.8: /conf/topology-vocab-extension/eh-spatial-relations
Abstract test A.9: /conf/topology-vocab-extension/rcc8-spatial-relations

A.2.1.  Simple Features Relation Family

Abstract test A.7

Identifier/conf/topology-vocab-extension/sf-spatial-relations
RequirementRequirement 8: /req/topology-vocab-extension/sf-spatial-relations
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving the following properties return the correct result for a test dataset: geo:sfEquals, geo:sfDisjoint, geo:sfIntersects, geo:sfTouches, geo:sfCrosses, geo:sfWithin, geo:sfContains and geo:sfOverlaps

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Table 2

A.2.2.  Egenhofer Relation Family

Abstract test A.8

Identifier/conf/topology-vocab-extension/eh-spatial-relations
RequirementRequirement 9: /req/topology-vocab-extension/eh-spatial-relations
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving the following properties return the correct result for a test dataset: geo:ehEquals, geo:ehDisjoint, geo:ehMeet, geo:ehOverlap, geo:ehCovers, geo:ehCoveredBy, geo:ehInside and geo:ehContains

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Table 3

A.2.3.  RCC8 Relation Family

Abstract test A.9

Identifier/conf/topology-vocab-extension/rcc8-spatial-relations
RequirementRequirement 10: /req/topology-vocab-extension/rcc8-spatial-relations
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving the following properties return the correct result for a test dataset: geo:rcc8eq, geo:rcc8dc, geo:rcc8ec, geo:rcc8po, geo:rcc8tppi, geo:rcc8tpp, geo:rcc8ntpp, geo:rcc8ntppi

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Table 4

A.3.  Conformance Class: Geometry Extension

Conformance class A.3: Geometry Extension

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension
SubjectGeometry
Requirements classRequirements class 2: /req/geometry-extension
Conformance testsAbstract test A.10: /conf/geometry-extension/geometry-class
Abstract test A.11: /conf/geometry-extension/geometry-collection-class
Abstract test A.12: /conf/geometry-extension/feature-properties
Abstract test A.13: /conf/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Abstract test A.14: /conf/geometry-extension/query-functions
Abstract test A.15: /conf/geometry-extension/srid-function
Abstract test A.16: /conf/geometry-extension/sa-functions
Abstract test A.17: /conf/geometry-extension/wkt-literal
Abstract test A.18: /conf/geometry-extension/wkt-literal-default-srs
Abstract test A.19: /conf/geometry-extension/wkt-axis-order
Abstract test A.20: /conf/geometry-extension/wkt-literal-empty
Abstract test A.21: /conf/geometry-extension/geometry-as-wkt-literal
Abstract test A.22: /conf/geometry-extension/asWKT-function
Abstract test A.23: /conf/geometry-extension/gml-literal
Abstract test A.24: /conf/geometry-extension/gml-literal-empty
Abstract test A.25: /conf/geometry-extension/gml-profile
Abstract test A.26: /conf/geometry-extension/geometry-as-gml-literal
Abstract test A.27: /conf/geometry-extension/asGML-function
Abstract test A.28: /conf/geometry-extension/geojson-literal
Abstract test A.29: /conf/geometry-extension/geojson-literal-srs
Abstract test A.30: /conf/geometry-extension/geojson-literal-empty
Abstract test A.31: /conf/geometry-extension/geometry-as-geojson-literal
Abstract test A.32: /conf/geometry-extension/asGeoJSON-function
Abstract test A.33: /conf/geometry-extension/kml-literal
Abstract test A.34: /conf/geometry-extension/kml-literal-srs
Abstract test A.35: /conf/geometry-extension/kml-literal-empty
Abstract test A.36: /conf/geometry-extension/geometry-as-kml-literal
Abstract test A.37: /conf/geometry-extension/asKML-function

This Conformance Class applies to non-DGGS geometries. See Annex A.4 for DGGS geometries.

A.3.1.  Tests for all Serializations except DGGS

Abstract test A.10

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/geometry-class
RequirementRequirement 11: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-class
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving geo:Geometry return the correct result on a test dataset

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.6.1

Abstract test A.11

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/geometry-collection-class
RequirementRequirement 12: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-collection-class
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving Geometry Collection return the correct result on a test dataset

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.6.2

Abstract test A.12

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/feature-properties
Requirement/req/geometry-extension/feature-properties
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving the following properties return the correct result for a test dataset: geo:hasGeometry, geo:hasDefaultGeometry, geo:hasLength, geo:hasArea, geo:hasVolumegeo:hasCentroid, geo:hasBoundingBox and geo:hasSpatialResolution

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 8.4

Abstract test A.13

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
RequirementRequirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving these properties return the correct result for a test dataset: geo:dimension, geo:coordinateDimension, geo:spatialDimension, geo:hasSpatialResolution, geo:hasMetricSpatialResolution, geo:hasSpatialAccuracy, geo:hasMetricSpatialAccuracy, geo:isEmpty, geo:isSimple and geo:hasSerialization

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.7

Abstract test A.14

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/query-functions
RequirementRequirement 39: /req/geometry-extension/query-functions
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a set of SPARQL queries involving each of the following functions returns the correct result for a test dataset when using the specified serialization and version: geof:boundarygeof:boundingCircle, geof:metricBuffer, geof:buffer, geof:centroid, geof:convexHull, geof:concaveHull, geof:coordinateDimension, geof:difference, geof:dimension, geof:metricDistance, geof:distance, geof:envelope, geof:geometryType, geof:intersection, geof:is3D, geof:isEmpty, geof:isMeasured, geof:isSimple, geof:spatialDimension, geof:symDifference, geof:transform and geof:union.

Test-method-type

Capabilities reference: Clause 10.9

Abstract test A.15

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/srid-function
RequirementRequirement 41: /req/geometry-extension/srid-function
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a SPARQL query involving the get SRID function returns the correct result for a test dataset when using the specified serialization and version.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.9.39

Abstract test A.16

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/sa-functions
RequirementRequirement 42: /req/geometry-extension/sa-functions
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a set of SPARQL queries involving each of the following functions returns the correct result for a test dataset: geof:aggBoundingBox, geof:aggBoundingCircle, geof:aggCentroid, geof:aggConcaveHull, geof:aggConvexHull and geof:aggUnion

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.10

A.3.2.  WKT Serialization

Abstract test A.17

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/wkt-literal
RequirementRequirement 14: /req/geometry-extension/wkt-literal
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving WKT Literal values return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.8.1.1

Abstract test A.18

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/wkt-literal-default-srs
RequirementRequirement 15: /req/geometry-extension/wkt-literal-default-srs
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving WKT Literal values without an explicit encoded SRS IRI return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Requirement 15: /req/geometry-extension/wkt-literal-default-srs

Abstract test A.19

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/wkt-axis-order
RequirementRequirement 16: /req/geometry-extension/wkt-axis-order
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving WKT Literal values return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Requirement 16: /req/geometry-extension/wkt-axis-order

Abstract test A.20

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/wkt-literal-empty
RequirementRequirement 17: /req/geometry-extension/wkt-literal-empty
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving empty WKT Literal values return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Requirement 17: /req/geometry-extension/wkt-literal-empty

Abstract test A.21

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/geometry-as-wkt-literal
RequirementRequirement 18: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-wkt-literal
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving the geo:asWKT property return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.8.1.2

Abstract test A.22

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/asWKT-function
RequirementRequirement 19: /req/geometry-extension/asWKT-function
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a set of SPARQL queries involving the geof:asWKT function returns the correct result for a test dataset when using the specified serialization and version.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.8.1.3

A.3.3.  GML Serialization

Abstract test A.23

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/gml-literal
RequirementRequirement 20: /req/geometry-extension/gml-literal
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving geo:gmlLiteral values return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.8.2.1

Abstract test A.24

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/gml-literal-empty
RequirementRequirement 21: /req/geometry-extension/gml-literal-empty
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving empty geo:gmlLiteral values return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Requirement 21: /req/geometry-extension/gml-literal-empty

Abstract test A.25

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/gml-profile
RequirementRequirement 22: /req/geometry-extension/gml-profile
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Examine the implementation’s documentation to verify that the supported GML profiles are documented.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Requirement 22: /req/geometry-extension/gml-profile

Abstract test A.26

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/geometry-as-gml-literal
RequirementRequirement 23: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-gml-literal
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving the geo:asGML property return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Requirement 23: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-gml-literal

Abstract test A.27

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/asGML-function
RequirementRequirement 24: /req/geometry-extension/asGML-function
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a set of SPARQL queries involving the geof:asGML function returns the correct result for a test dataset when using the specified serialization and version.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.8.2.3

A.3.4.  GeoJSON Serialization

Abstract test A.28

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/geojson-literal
RequirementRequirement 25: /req/geometry-extension/geojson-literal
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving geo:geoJSONLiteral values return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.8.3.1

Abstract test A.29

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/geojson-literal-srs
RequirementRequirement 26: /req/geometry-extension/geojson-literal-srs
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving geo:geoJSONLiteral values without an explicit encoded SRS IRI return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Requirement 26: /req/geometry-extension/geojson-literal-srs

Abstract test A.30

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/geojson-literal-empty
RequirementRequirement 27: /req/geometry-extension/geojson-literal-empty
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving empty geo:geoJSONLiteral values return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Requirement 27: /req/geometry-extension/geojson-literal-empty

Abstract test A.31

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/geometry-as-geojson-literal
RequirementRequirement 28: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-geojson-literal
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving the geo:asGeoJSON property return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Requirement 28: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-geojson-literal

Abstract test A.32

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/asGeoJSON-function
RequirementRequirement 29: /req/geometry-extension/asGeoJSON-function
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a set of SPARQL queries involving the geof:asGeoJSON function returns the correct result for a test dataset when using the specified serialization and version.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.8.3.3

A.3.5.  KML Serialization

Abstract test A.33

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/kml-literal
RequirementRequirement 30: /req/geometry-extension/kml-literal
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving geo:kmlLiteral values return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.8.4.1

Abstract test A.34

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/kml-literal-srs
RequirementRequirement 31: /req/geometry-extension/kml-literal-srs
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving geo:kmlLiteral values without an explicit encoded SRS IRI return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Requirement 31: /req/geometry-extension/kml-literal-srs

Abstract test A.35

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/kml-literal-empty
RequirementRequirement 32: /req/geometry-extension/kml-literal-empty
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving empty geo:kmlLiteral values return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Requirement 32: /req/geometry-extension/kml-literal-empty

Abstract test A.36

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/geometry-as-kml-literal
RequirementRequirement 33: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-kml-literal
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving the geo:asKML property return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Requirement 33: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-kml-literal

Abstract test A.37

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension/asKML-function
RequirementRequirement 34: /req/geometry-extension/asKML-function
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a set of SPARQL queries involving the geof:asKML function returns the correct result for a test dataset when using the specified serialization and version.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.8.4.3

A.4.  DGGS Conformance Class: Geometry Extension — DGGS

This conformance Class applies only to DGGS geometries. See Annex A.3 for other geometries.

Conformance class A.4: Geometry Extension DGGS

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension-dggs
Requirements classRequirements class 3: /req/geometry-extension-dggs
Conformance testsAbstract test A.38: /conf/geometry-extension-dggs/query-functions
Abstract test A.39: /conf/geometry-extension-dggs/query-functions-non-sf
Abstract test A.40: /conf/geometry-extension-dggs/srid-function
Abstract test A.41: /conf/geometry-extension-dggs/sa-functions
Abstract test A.42: /conf/geometry-extension-dggs/dggs-literal
Abstract test A.43: /conf/geometry-extension-dggs/dggs-literal-empty
Abstract test A.44: /conf/geometry-extension-dggs/geometry-as-dggs-literal
Abstract test A.45: /conf/geometry-extension-dggs/asDGGS-function

A.4.1.  Tests for DGGS Serializations

Abstract test A.38

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension-dggs/query-functions
Requirement/req/geometry-extension-dggs/query-functions
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that implementations support the functions of Requirement http://www.opengis.net/spec/geosparql/1.1/req/geometry-extension/query-functions for DGGS geometry literals as SPARQL extension functions, in a manner which is consistent with definitions of these functions in Simple Features [OGCSFACA] [ISO19125-1], for non-DGGS geometry literals.test-method-type:: Capabilities

Abstract test A.39

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension-dggs/query-functions-non-sf
Requirement/req/geometry-extension-dggs/query-functions-non-sf
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that implementations support the functions of Requirement http://www.opengis.net/spec/geosparql/1.1/req/geometry-extension/query-functions-non-sf for DGGS geometry literals as SPARQL extension functions which are defined in this standard, for non-DGGS geometry literals.

Abstract test A.40

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension-dggs/srid-function
Requirement/req/geometry-extension-dggs/srid-function
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that Implementations shall support geof:getSRID as a SPARQL extension function for DGGS geometry literals.

Reference

Clause 10.9.39

Abstract test A.41

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension-dggs/sa-functions
Requirement/req/geometry-extension-dggs/sa-functions
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that implementations support the functions of Requirement A.3.1.8 /conf/geometry-extension/sa-functions as SPARQL extension functions which are defined in this standard, for DGGS geometry literals, in a manner which is consistent with definitions of these functions in Simple Features [OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

[_spatial_aggregate_functions]

A.4.2.  DGGS Serialization

Abstract test A.42

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension-dggs/dggs-literal
RequirementRequirement 35: /req/geometry-extension-dggs/dggs-literal
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving empty geo:dggsLiteral values return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.8.5.1

Abstract test A.43

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension-dggs/dggs-literal-empty
RequirementRequirement 36: /req/geometry-extension-dggs/dggs-literal-empty
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving empty geo:dggsLiteral values return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Requirement 36: /req/geometry-extension-dggs/dggs-literal-empty

Abstract test A.44

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension-dggs/geometry-as-dggs-literal
RequirementRequirement 37: /req/geometry-extension-dggs/geometry-as-dggs-literal
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving the geo:asDGGS property return the correct result for a test dataset.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Requirement 37: /req/geometry-extension-dggs/geometry-as-dggs-literal

Abstract test A.45

Identifier/conf/geometry-extension-dggs/asDGGS-function
RequirementRequirement 38: /req/geometry-extension-dggs/asDGGS-function
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a set of SPARQL queries involving the geof:asDGGS function returns the correct result for a test dataset when using the specified serialization and version.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 10.8.5.3

A.5.  Conformance Class: Geometry Topology Extension

Conformance class A.5: Geometry Topology Extension

Identifier/conf/geometry-topology-extension
Requirements classRequirements class 4: /req/geometry-topology-extension
Conformance testsAbstract test A.46: /conf/geometry-topology-extension/relate-query-function
Abstract test A.47: /conf/geometry-topology-extension/sf-query-functions
Abstract test A.48: /conf/geometry-topology-extension/eh-query-functions
Abstract test A.49: /conf/geometry-topology-extension/rcc8-query-functions

A.5.1.  Tests for all relation families

Abstract test A.46

Identifier/conf/geometry-topology-extension/relate-query-function
RequirementRequirement 43: /req/geometry-topology-extension/relate-query-function
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a set of SPARQL queries involving the geof:relate function returns the correct result for a test dataset when using the specified serialization and version.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

A.5.2.  Simple Features Relation Family

Abstract test A.47

Identifier/conf/geometry-topology-extension/sf-query-functions
RequirementRequirement 44: /req/geometry-topology-extension/sf-query-functions
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a set of SPARQL queries involving each of the following functions returns the correct result for a test dataset when using the specified serialization and version: geof:sfEquals, geof:sfDisjoint, geof:sfIntersects, geof:sfTouches, geof:sfCrosses, geof:sfWithin, geof:sfContains, geof:sfOverlaps .

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

[sf-query-functions]

A.5.3.  Egenhofer Relation Family

Abstract test A.48

Identifier/conf/geometry-topology-extension/eh-query-functions
RequirementRequirement 45: /req/geometry-topology-extension/eh-query-functions
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a set of SPARQL queries involving each of the following functions returns the correct result for a test dataset when using the specified serialization and version: geof:ehEquals, geof:ehDisjoint, geof:ehMeet, geof:ehOverlap, geof:ehCovers, geof:ehCoveredBy, geof:ehInside, geof:ehContains.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

[eh-query-functions]

A.5.4.  RCC8 Relation Family

Abstract test A.49

Identifier/conf/geometry-topology-extension/rcc8-query-functions
RequirementRequirement 46: /req/geometry-topology-extension/rcc8-query-functions
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a set of SPARQL queries involving each of the following functions returns the correct result for a test dataset when using the specified serialization and version: geof:rcc8eq, geof:rcc8dc, geof:rcc8ec, geof:rcc8po, geof:rcc8tppi, geof:rcc8tpp, geof:rcc8ntpp, geof:rcc8ntppi .

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

[rcc8-query-functions]

A.6.  Conformance Class: RDFS Entailment Extension

Conformance class A.6: RDFS Entailment Extension

Identifier/conf/rdfs-entailment-extension
Requirements class/req/rdfs-entailment-extension
Conformance testsAbstract test A.50: /conf/rdfs-entailment-extension/bgp-rdfs-ent
Abstract test A.51: /conf/rdfs-entailment-extension/wkt-geometry-types
Abstract test A.52: /conf/rdfs-entailment-extension/gml-geometry-types

A.6.1.  Tests for all implementations

Abstract test A.50

Identifier/conf/rdfs-entailment-extension/bgp-rdfs-ent
RequirementRequirement 47: /req/rdfs-entailment-extension/bgp-rdfs-ent
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a set of SPARQL queries involving entailed RDF triples returns the correct result for a test dataset using the specified serialization, version and relation_family.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

[rdfse_common_reqs]

A.6.2.  WKT Serialization

Abstract test A.51

Identifier/conf/rdfs-entailment-extension/wkt-geometry-types
RequirementRequirement 48: /req/rdfs-entailment-extension/wkt-geometry-types
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a set of SPARQL queries involving WKT Geometry types returns the correct result for a test dataset using the specified version of Simple Features.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 12.3

A.6.3.  GML Serialization

Abstract test A.52

Identifier/conf/rdfs-entailment-extension/gml-geometry-types
RequirementRequirement 49: /req/rdfs-entailment-extension/gml-geometry-types
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that a set of SPARQL queries involving GML Geometry types returns the correct result for a test dataset using the specified version of GML.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 12.4

A.7.  Conformance Class: Query Rewrite Extension

Conformance class A.7: Query Rewrite Extension

Identifier/conf/query-rewrite-extension
Requirements classRequirements class 5: /req/query-rewrite-extension
Conformance testsAbstract test A.53: /conf/query-rewrite-extension/sf-query-rewrite
Abstract test A.54: /conf/query-rewrite-extension/eh-query-rewrite
Abstract test A.55: /conf/query-rewrite-extension/rcc8-query-rewrite

A.7.1.  Simple Features Relation Family

Abstract test A.53

Identifier/conf/query-rewrite-extension/sf-query-rewrite
RequirementRequirement 50: /req/query-rewrite-extension/sf-query-rewrite
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving the following query transformation rules return the correct result for a test dataset when using the specified serialization and version: geor:sfEquals, geor:sfDisjoint, geor:sfIntersects, geor:sfTouches, geor:sfCrosses, geor:sfWithin, geor:sfContains and geor:sfOverlaps.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 13.2

A.7.2.  Egenhofer Relation Family

Abstract test A.54

Identifier/conf/query-rewrite-extension/eh-query-rewrite
RequirementRequirement 51: /req/query-rewrite-extension/eh-query-rewrite
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving the following query transformation rules return the correct result for a test dataset when using the specified serialization and version: geor:ehEquals, geor:ehDisjoint, geor:ehMeet, geor:ehOverlap, geor:ehCovers, geor:ehCoveredBy, geor:ehInside, geor:ehContains.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 13.3

A.7.3.  RCC8 Relation Family

Abstract test A.55

Identifier/conf/query-rewrite-extension/rcc8-query-rewrite
RequirementRequirement 52: /req/query-rewrite-extension/rcc8-query-rewrite
Test purpose

Check conformance with this requirement

Test method

Verify that queries involving the following query transformation rules return the correct result for a test dataset when using the specified serialization and version: geor:rcc8eq, geor:rcc8dc, geor:rcc8ec, geor:rcc8po, geor:rcc8tppi, geor:rcc8tpp, geor:rcc8ntpp, geor:rcc8ntppi.

Test-method-type

Capabilities

Reference

Clause 13.4


Annex B
(normative)
Functions Summary

B.0. Overview

This annex summarizes all the functions defined in GeoSPARQL, providing descriptions of their parameters and return types.

The value ogc:geomLiteral indicates any one of the specific geometry serializations datatypes defined in this Specification, for example geo:wktLiteral.

The geometry subtypes — Polygon, Point, CellList etc. — are the Simple Features specification[OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1 or DGGS types, as implemented by the various geometry serialization specifications referenced here. See Clause 10.8 for the individual specification references.

B.1.  Functions Summary Table

Table B.1 — GeoSPARQL Functions Summary

Simple Features Functions
FunctionInput DatatypesInput SubtypesOutput DatatypeOutput Subtype
sfContains2x ogc:geomLiteral1x Polygon, 1x Geometryxsd:boolean
sfCrosses2x ogc:geomLiteral1x Point or LineString, 1 x LineString or Polygonxsd:boolean
sfDisjoint2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Geometryxsd:boolean
sfEquals2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Geometryxsd:boolean
sfIntersects2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Polygonxsd:boolean
sfOverlaps2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Point or 2x LineString or 2x Polygonxsd:boolean
sfTouches2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Geometry but not Pointxsd:boolean
sfWithin2x ogc:geomLiteral1x Geometry, 1x Polygonxsd:boolean
Egenhofer Functions
FunctionInput DatatypesInput SubtypesOutput DatatypeOutput Subtype
ehContains2x ogc:geomLiteral1x Polygon, 1x Geometryxsd:boolean
ehCoveredBy2x ogc:geomLiteral1x Polygon, 1x Geometryxsd:boolean
ehCovers2x ogc:geomLiteral1x Polygon, 1x Geometryxsd:boolean
ehDisjoint2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Geometryxsd:boolean
ehEquals2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Geometryxsd:boolean
ehMeet2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Geometry but not Pointxsd:boolean
ehOverlap2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Geometryxsd:boolean
ehInside2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Geometryxsd:boolean
Region Connection Calculus Functions
FunctionInput DatatypesInput SubtypesOutput DatatypeOutput Subtype
rcc8dcc2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Polygonxsd:boolean
rcc8ecc2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Polygonxsd:boolean
rcc8eq2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Polygonxsd:boolean
rcc8ntpp2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Polygonxsd:boolean
rcc8ntppi2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Polygonxsd:boolean
rcc8po2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Polygonxsd:boolean
rcc8tpp2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Polygonxsd:boolean
rcc8tppi2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Polygonxsd:boolean
Spatial Aggregate Functions
FunctionInput DatatypesInput SubtypesOutput DatatypeOutput Subtype
aggBoundingBox1 or more ogc:geomLiteralogc:geomLiteralsquare Polygon (not DGGS), CellList (DGGS)
aggBoundingCircle1 or more ogc:geomLiteralogc:geomLiteralPolygon (not DGGS) CellList (DGGS)
aggCentroid1 or more ogc:geomLiteralogc:geomLiteralPoint (not DGGS), Cell (DGGS)
aggConcaveHull1 or more ogc:geomLiteralogc:geomLiteralPolygon (not DGGS), CellList (DGGS)
aggConvexHull1 or more ogc:geomLiteralogc:geomLiteralPolygon (not DGGS), CellList (DGGS)
aggUnion1 or more ogc:geomLiteralogc:geomLiteralPolygon (not DGGS), CellList (DGGS)
Non-topological Query Functions
FunctionInput DatatypesInput SubtypesOutput DatatypeOutput Subtype
metricArea1x ogc:geomLiteralPolygonxsd:double
area1x ogc:geomLiteralPolygonxsd:double
boundary1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryogc:geomLiteralLineString (not DGGS), OrderedCellList (DGGS)
buffer1x ogc:geomLiteral, 1x xsd:double, 1x xsd:anyURIanyogc:geomLiteral(Multi)Polygon (not DGGS), CellList (DGGS)
convexHull1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryogc:geomLiteralLineString (not DGGS)
coordinateDimension1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:integer
difference2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Geometryogc:geomLiteral(Multi)Polygon (not DGGS), CellList (DGGS)
dimension1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:double
metricDistance2x ogc:geomLiteral, 1x xsd:anyURI2x Geometryxsd:double
distance2x ogc:geomLiteral, 1x xsd:anyURI2x Geometryrdfs:Resource
envelope1x ogc:geomLiteral, 1x xsd:anyURIGeometryogc:geomLiteral(Multi)Polygon (not DGGS), CellList (DGGS)
geometryN1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryCollection (not DGGS)xsd:double
geometryType1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:anyURI
getSRID1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:anyURI
intersection2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Geometryogc:geomLiteralPolygon (not DGGS), CellList (DGGS)
is3D1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:boolean
isEmpty1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:boolean
isMeasured1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:boolean
isSimple1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:boolean
metricLength1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:double
length1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryrdfs:Resource
numGeometries1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometry (not DGGS)xsd:double
metricPerimeter1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:double
perimeter1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryrdfs:Resource
spatialDimension1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:integer
symDifference2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Geometryogc:geomLiteral(Multi)Polygon (not DGGS), CellList DGGS)
transform1x ogc:geomLiteral, 1x xsd:anyURIGeometryogc:geomLiteralGeometry
union2x ogc:geomLiteral2x Geometryogc:geomLiteralPolygon (not DGGS), CellList (DGGS)
Serialization Functions
FunctionInput DatatypesInput SubtypesOutput DatatypeOutput Subtype
asDGGS1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometrygeo:dggsLiteral
asGeoJSON1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometrygeo:geoJSONLiteral
asGML1x ogc:geomLiteral, 1x xsd:stringGeometrygeo:gmlLiteral
asKML1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometrygeo:kmlLiteral
asWKT1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometrygeo:wktLiteral
Extent Functions
FunctionInput DatatypesInput SubtypesOutput DatatypeOutput Subtype
getSRID1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:anyURI
maxX1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:double
maxY1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:double
maxZ1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:double
minX1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:double
minY1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:double
minZ1x ogc:geomLiteralGeometryxsd:double
Other Functions
FunctionInput DatatypesInput SubtypesOutput DatatypeOutput Subtype
relate2x ogc:geomLiteralxsd:string

B.2.  GeoSPARQL to SFA Functions Mapping

The following table indicates which GeoSPARQL non-topological query functions map to Simple Features Access ([OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1) functions and in which GeoSPARQL version the functions are defined.

Where the Simple Features Access function has the same name as the GeoSPARQL function, ‘x’ is recorded.

Table B.2 — GeoSPARQL To SFA Mappings

GeoSPARQL Functionin 1.0in 1.1SFA
metricAreaxArea
areaxArea
AsBinary
asWKT*xxAsText
boundaryxxBoundary
bufferxxBuffer
Centroid
convexHullxxConvexHull
coordinateDimensionx
differencexxDifference
dimensionxDimension
metricDistancexDistance
distancexxDistance
EndPoint
envelopexxEnvelope
geometryNxGeometryN
geometryTypexGeometryType
getSRIDxxSRID
InteriorRingN
intersectionxxIntersection
is3Dx
IsClosed
isEmptyxIsEmpty
isMeasuredx
IsRing
isSimplexIsSimple
metricLengthxLength
lengthxLength
maxXx
maxYx
maxZx
minXx
minYx
minZx
numGeometriesxNumGeometries
NumInteriorRing
NumPoints
perimeterLengthx
perimeterx
PointN
PointOnSurface
spatialDimensionx
StartPoint
symDifferencexxSymDifference
transformx
unionxxUnion
X
Y

* GeoSPARQL’s asWKT is only a partial implementation of asText since asWKT only returns WKT, not textual geometry literal data in general.


Annex C
(informative)
GeoSPARQL Examples

C.0. Overview

This Annex provides examples of the GeoSPARQL ontology and functions. In addition to these, extended examples are provided separately by the GeoSPARQL 1.1 profile. See the Clause 7.3 for the link to those examples.

C.1.  RDF Examples

This Section illustrates GeoSPARQL ontology modelling with extended examples.

C.1.1.  Classes

C.1.1.1.  SpatialObject

The SpatialObject class is defined in Clause 8.2.1.

C.1.1.1.1.  Basic use

Basic use (as per the example in the class definition)

eg:x
    a geo:SpatialObject ;
    skos:prefLabel "Object X";
.

NOTE:    It is unlikely that users of GeoSPARQL will create many instances of geo:SpatialObject as its two more concrete subclasses, geo:Feature & geo:Geometry, are more directly relatable to real-world phenomena and use.

C.1.1.1.2.  Size Properties

The “size” properties — geo:hasSize, geo:hasMetricSize, geo:hasLength, geo:hasMetricLength, geo:hasPerimeterLength, geo:hasMetricPerimeterLength, geo:hasArea, geo:hasMetricArea, geo:hasVolume and geo:hasMetricVolume — are all applicable to instances of geo:SpatialObject although, as per the note in the section above, they are likely to be used with geo:Feature & geo:Geometry instances.

@prefix qudt: <http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/> .
@prefix unit: <http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/> .

eg:moreton-island
    a geo:SpatialObject ;

    skos:prefLabel "Moreton Island" ;
    rdfs:seeAlso "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moreton_Island"^^xsd:anyURI ;

    geo:hasPerimeterLength [
        qudt:numericValue "92.367"^^xsd:float ;
        qudt:unit unit:KiloM ;
    ];
    geo:hasMetricPerimeterLength "92367"^^xsd:double ;
.

Here a spatial object, Moreton Island, has the distance of its coastline given with two properties: geo:hasPerimeterLength & geo:hasMetricPerimeterLength. The object for the first is a Blank Node with a QUDT value property of 92.367 and a QUDT unit property of unit:KiloM (kilometre). The object for the second is the literal 92367 (a double) which is, by the property’s definition, a number of metres.

The use of the Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types (QUDT) ontology9 and its qudt:numericValue & qudt:unit is just one of many possible ways to convey the value of geo:hasPerimeterLength and any subproperty of geo:hasSize.

C.1.1.2.  Feature

The Feature class is defined in Clause 8.2.2.

C.1.1.2.1.  Basic use
eg:x
    a geo:Feature ;
    skos:prefLabel "Feature X" ;
.

Here a Feature is declared and given a preferred label.

C.1.1.2.2.  A Feature related to a Geometry
eg:x
    a geo:Feature ;
    skos:prefLabel "Feature X" ;
    geo:hasGeometry [
        geo:asWKT "MULTIPOLYGON (((149.06016 -35.23610, 149.06062 -35.23604, ... , 149.06016 -35.23610)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
    ] ;
.

Here a geo:Feature is declared, given a preferred label and a Geometry for that geo:Feature is indicated with the use of geo:hasGeometry. The Geometry indicated is described using a Well-Known Text literal value, indicated by the property geo:asWKT and the literal type geo:wktLiteral.

C.1.1.2.3.  Feature with Geometry and size (area)
eg:x
    a geo:Feature ;
    skos:prefLabel "Feature X" ;
        geo:hasGeometry [
            geo:asWKT "MULTIPOLYGON (((149.06016 -35.23610, 149.06062 -35.23604, ... , 149.06016 -35.23610)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
    ] ;
    geo:hasMetricArea "8.9E4"^^xsd:double ;
.

This example and the example below (B 1.1.2.4) show the same geo:Feature, but with a different specification of its area. This example shows the recommended way to express size: by using a subproperty of geo:hasMetricSize (in this case, ). These subproperties have fixed units based on meter (the unit of distance in the International System of Units).

C.1.1.2.4.  Feature with Geometry and non-metric size
@prefix qudt: <http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/> .

eg:x
    a geo:Feature ;
    skos:prefLabel "Feature X";
        geo:hasGeometry [
            geo:asWKT "MULTIPOLYGON (((149.06016 -35.23610, 149.06062 -35.23604, ... , 149.06016 -35.23610)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
    ] ;
    geo:hasArea [
        qudt:numericValue "2.2E5"^^xsd:double ;
        qudt:unit <http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/AC> ;  # international acre
    ] ;
.

Here a geo:Feature is described as per the previous example but its area is expressed in non-metric units: the acre.

C.1.1.2.5.  Feature with two different Geometry instances indicated
eg:x
    a geo:Feature ;
    skos:prefLabel "Feature X";
    geo:hasGeometry [
        rdfs:label "Official boundary" ;
        rdfs:comment "Official boundary from the Department of Xxx" ;
        geo:asWKT "MULTIPOLYGON (((149.06016 -35.23610, 149.06062 -35.23604, ... , 149.06016 -35.23610)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
    ] ,
    [
        rdfs:label "Unofficial boundary" ;
        rdfs:comment "Unofficial boundary as actually used by everyone" ;
        geo:asWKT "MULTIPOLYGON (((149.06016 -35.23610, 149.06062 -35.23604, ... , 149.06016 -35.23610)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
    ] ;
.

In this example, Feature X has two different Geometry instances indicated with their difference explained in annotation properties. No GeoSPARQL ontology properties are used to indicate a difference in these Geometry instances thus machine use of this Feature woud not be easily able to differentiate them.

C.1.1.2.6.  Feature with two different Geometry instances with different property values
eg:x
    a geo:Feature ;
    skos:prefLabel "Feature X";
    geo:hasGeometry [
        geo:hasMetricSpatialResolution "100"^^xsd:double ;
        geo:asWKT "MULTIPOLYGON (((149.0601 -35.2361, 149.0606 -35.2360, ... , 149.0601 -35.2361)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
    ] ,
    [
        geo:hasMetricSpatialResolution "5"^^xsd:double ;
        geo:asWKT "MULTIPOLYGON (((149.06016 -35.23610, 149.06062 -35.23604, ... , 149.06016 -35.23610)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
    ] ;
.

In this example, Feature X has two different Geometry instances indicated with different spatial resolutions. Machine use of this Feature would be able to differentiate the two Geometry instances based on this use of geo:hasMetricSpatialResolution.

C.1.1.2.7.  Feature with non-metric size
@prefix dbp: <http://dbpedia.org/resource/> .
@prefix qudt: <http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/> .

ex:Seleucia_Artemita
    a geo:Feature ;
    skos:prefLabel "The route from Seleucia to Artemita"@en ;
    geo:hasLength [
      qudt:unit ex:Schoenus ;
      qudt:value "15"^^xsd:integer ;
    ]
.
ex:Schoenus
  a qudt:Unit;
  skos:exactMatch dbp:Schoenus;
.

In this example it is not possible to convert the length of the feature to meters, because the historical length unit does not have a known precise conversion factor.

C.1.1.2.8.  Feature with two different types of Geometry instances
eg:x
    a geo:Feature ;
    skos:prefLabel "Feature X";
    geo:hasGeometry [
        geo:asWKT "POLYGON ((149.06016 -35.23610, 149.060620 -35.236043, ... , 149.06016 -35.23610))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
    ] ;
    geo:hasCentroid [
        geo:asWKT "POINT (149.06017784 -35.23612321)"^^geo:WktLiteral ;
    ] ;
.

Here a Feature instance has two geometries, one indicated with the general property hasGeometry and a second indicated with the specialized property hasCentroid which suggests the role that the indicated geometry plays. Note that while hasGeometry may indicate any type of Geometry, hasCentroid should only be used to indicate a point geometry. It may be informally inferred that the polygonal geometry is the Feature instance’s boundary.

C.1.1.2.9.  Feature with multiple sizes
ex:lake-x
    a geo:Feature ;
    skos:prefLabel "Lake X" ;
    eg:hasFeatureCategory <http://example.com/cat/lake> ;
    geo:hasMetricArea "9.26E4"^^xsd:double ;
    geo:hasMetricVolume "6E5"^^xsd:double ;
.

This example shows a Feature instance with area and volume declared. A categorization of the Feature is given through the use of the eg:hasFeatureCategory dummy property which, along with the Feature’s preferred label, indicate that this Feature is a lake. Having both an area and a volume makes sense for a lake.

C.1.1.3.  Geometry

The Geometry class is defined in Clause 10.6.1.

C.1.1.3.1.  Basic Use
eg:y a geo:Geometry ;
    skos:prefLabel "Geometry Y";
.

Here a Geometry is declared and given a preferred label.

From GeoSPARQL 1.0 use, the most commonly observed use of a Geometry is in relation to a Feature as per the example in [B_1.1.2.2_A__lt_tt_gt_Feature_lt__tt_gt__related_to_a__lt_tt_gt_Geometry_lt__tt_gt_] and often the Geometry is indirectly declared by the use of hasGeometry on the Feature instance indicating a Blank Node. However, it is entirely possible to declare Geometry instances without any Feature instances. The next basic example declares a Geometry instance with an absolute URI and data.

<https://example.com/geometry/y>
    a geo:Geometry ;
    skos:prefLabel "Geometry Y";
    geo:asWKT "MULTIPOLYGON (((149.06016 -35.23610, 149.060620 -35.236043, ... , 149.06016 -35.23610)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
.

Here the Geometry instance has data in WKT form and, since no CRS is declared, WGS84 is the assumed, default, CRS.

C.1.1.3.2.  A Geometry with multiple serializations
eg:x
    a geo:Feature ;
    skos:prefLabel "Feature X";
    geo:hasGeometry [
        geo:asWKT "<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326> MULTIPOLYGON (((149.06016 -35.23610, 149.060620 -35.236043, ... , 149.06016 -35.23610)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
        geo:asDGGS "<https://w3id.org/dggs/auspix> CELLLIST ((R1234 R1235 R1236 ... R1256))"^^geo:dggsLiteral ;
    ] ;
.

Here a single Geometry, linked to a Feature instance, is expressed using two different serializations: Well-known Text and the DGGS with the AusPIX DGGS indicated by its IRI.

C.1.1.3.3.  Geometry with scalar spatial property
eg:x
    a geo:Feature ;
    skos:prefLabel "Feature X";
    geo:hasGeometry eg:x-geo ;
.

eg:x-geo
    a geo:Geometry ;
    geo:asWKT "MULTIPOLYGON (((149.06016 -35.23610, 149.060620 -35.236043, ... , 149.06016 -35.23610)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
    geo:hasMetricArea "8.7E4"^^xsd:double;
.

This example shows a Feature, eg:x, with a Geometry, eg:x-geo, which has both a serialization (WKT) indicated with the predicate geo:asWKT and a scalar area indicated with the predicate geo:hasMetricArea. While it is entirely possible that scalar areas can be calculated from polygons, it may be efficient to store a pre-calculated scalar area in addition to the polygon. Perhaps the polygon is large and detailed and a one-time calculation with results stored is efficient for repeated use.

This use of a scalar spatial measurement property with a Geometry, here geo:hasMetricArea, is possible since the domain of such properties is geo:SpatialObject, the superclass of both geo:Feature and geo:Geometry.

C.1.1.4.  SpatialObjectCollection

geo:SpatialObjectCollection isn’t really intended to be implemented — it’s essentially an abstract class — therefore no examples of its use are given. See the following two sections for examples of the concrete geo:FeatureCollection & geo:GeometryCollection classes.

C.1.1.5.  FeatureCollection

This example shows a FeatureCollection instance containing 3 Feature instances.

ex:fc-x
    a geo:FeatureCollection ;
    dcterms:title "Feature Collection X" ;
    rdfs:member
        ex:feature-something ,
        ex:feature-other ,
        ex:feature-another ;
.

All of the GeoSPARQL collection classes are unordered since they are subclasses of the generic rdfs:Container, however implementers should consider that there are many ways to order the members of a FeatureCollection such as the Feature instance labels, their areas, geometries or any other property.

C.1.1.6.  GeometryCollection

This example shows a GeometryCollection instance containing 3 Geometry instances.

ex:gc-x
    a geo:GeometryCollection ;
    dcterms:title "Geometry Collection X" ;
    rdfs:member
        ex:geometry-shape ,
        ex:geometry-othershape ,
        ex:geometry-anothershape ;
.

As per FeatureCollection, the GeometryCollection itself doesn’t impose any ordering on its member Geometry instances, however there are many ways to order them, based on their own properties.

C.1.1.7.  Simple Features classes

Most of the geometry seralizations used in GeoSPARQL define the geometry type — point, polygon etc. within the literal, e.g. WKT can encode POLYGON(()) or ‘POINT()’, however the Simple Features Vocabulary resource within GeoSPARQL 1.1 contains specialised Geometry RDF classes such as sf:Polygon, sf:PolyhedralSurface and others.

It may be appropriate to use these specialized forms of Geometry in circumstances when geometry type differentiation is required within RDF and not withing specialized literal handling. This is the case when type differentiation must occur within plain SPARQL, not GeoSPARQL.

The following example shows a Feature instance with two Geometry instances where the Simple Features Vocabulary classes are used to indicate the Geometry type:

ex:x
    a geo:Feature ;
    rdfs:label "Feature X" ;
    geo:hasGeometry [
        a sf:Point ;
        geo:asWKT "POINT(...)" ;
        rdfs:comment "A point geometry for Feature X, possibly a centroid though not declared one" ;
    ] ;
    geo:hasGeometry [
        a sf:Polygon ;
        geo:asWKT "POLYGON((...))" ;
        rdfs:comment "A polygon geometry for Feature X" ;
    ] ;

There are several GeoSPARQL properties that suggest they could be used with particular Simple Features Vocabulary geometry types, for instance, geo:hasCentroid indicates is could be used with a sf:Point and geo:hasBoundingBox indicates use with an sf:Envelope.

C.1.2.  Properties

C.1.2.1.  Spatial Object Properties

See the section [C.1.1.1.2_Size_Properties] above.

C.1.2.2.  Feature Properties

This example shows a geo:Feature instance with each of the properties defined in Clause 8.4 used, except for the properties geo:hasMetricSize and geo:hasSize, that are intended to be used through their subproperties and geo:hasMetricPerimeterLength and geo:hasPerimeterLength which are examplified in [C.1.1.1.2_Size_Properties].

@prefix qudt: <http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/> .

eg:x
    a geo:Feature ;
    skos:preferredLabel "Feature X" ;
    geo:hasGeometry [
        geo:asWKT "<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326> POLYGON ((149.06016 -35.23610, ... , 149.06016 -35.23610)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
    ] ;
    geo:hasDefaultGeometry [
        geo:asWKT "<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326> POLYGON ((149.0601 -35.2361, ... , 149.0601 -35.2361)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
    ] ;
    geo:hasMetricLength "355"^^xsd:double ;
    geo:hasLength [
        qudt:numericValue 355 ;
        qudt:unit <http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M> ;  # meter
    ] ;
    geo:hasMetricArea "8.7E4"^^xsd:double ;
    geo:hasArea [
        qudt:numericValue 8.7 ;
        qudt:unit <http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/HA> ;  # hectare
    ] ;
    geo:hasMetricVolume "624432"^^xsd:double ;
    geo:hasVolume [
        qudt:numericValue 624432 ;
        qudt:unit <http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3> ;  # cubic meter
    ] ;
    geo:hasCentroid [
        geo:asWKT "POINT (149.06017 -35.23612)"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
    ] ;
    geo:hasBoundingBox [
        geo:asWKT "<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326> POLYGON ((149.060 -35.236, ... , 149.060 -35.236)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
    ] ;
    geo:hasMetricSpatialResolution "5"^^xsd:double ;
    geo:hasSpatialResolution [
        qudt:numericValue 5 ;
        qudt:unit <http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M> ;  # meter
    ] ;
.

The properties defined for this example’s Feature instance are vaguely aligned in that the values are not real but are not unrealistic either. It is outside the scope of GeoSPARQL to validate Feature instances’ property values.

Note that this Feature has a 2D Geometry and yet a property indicating a scalar volume: geo:hasVolume. Used in this way, the scalar property is indicating information that cannot be calculated from other information about the Feature such as its geometry. Perhaps a volume for the feature has been estimated or measured in such a way that a 3D geometry was not created.

C.1.2.3.  Geometry Properties

This example shows a Geometry instance, a Blank Node, declared in relation to a Feature instance, with each of the properties defined in Clause 10.7 used.

@prefix qudt: <http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/> .
@prefix unit: <http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/> .

eg:x
    a geo:Feature ;
    geo:hasGeometry [
        skos:prefLabel "Geometry Y" ;
        geo:dimension 2 ;
        geo:coordinateDimension 2 ;
        geo:spatialDimension 2 ;
        geo:isEmpty false ;
        geo:isSimple true ;
        geo:hasSerialization "<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326> POLYGON ((149.060 -35.236, ... , 149.060 -35.236)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
        geo:hasSpatialAccuracy [
            qudt:numericValue "30"^^xsd:float ;
            qudt:unit unit:CentiM ;  # centimetres
        ] ;
        geo:hasMetricSpatialAccuracy "0.3"^^xsd:double ;
    ] ;
.

In this example, each of the properties defined for a Geometry instance has realistic values. For example, the is empty property is set to false since the Geometry contains information.

C.1.2.4.  Geometry Serializations

This section shows a Geometry instance for a Feature instance which is represented in all supported GeoSPARQL serlializations. The geometry values given are real geometry values and approximate Moreton Island in Queensland, Australia.

Note that the concrete DGGS serialization used is for example purposes only as it is not formally defined in GeoSPARQL.

eg:x
    a geo:Feature ;
    geo:hasGeometry [
        geo:asWKT """<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326>
            POLYGON ((
                153.3610112 -27.0621757,
                153.3658177 -27.1990606,
                153.421436 -27.3406573,
                153.4269292 -27.3607835,
                153.4434087 -27.3315078,
                153.4183848 -27.2913403,
                153.4189391 -27.2039578,
                153.4673476 -27.0267166,
                153.3610112 -27.0621757
            ))"""^^geo:wktLiteral ;

        geo:asGML """<gml:Polygon
                srsName="http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326">
                <gml:exterior>
                    <gml:LinearRing>
                        <gml:posList>
                            -27.0621757 153.3610112
                            -27.1990606 153.3658177
                            -27.3406573 153.421436
                            -27.3607835 153.4269292
                            -27.3315078 153.4434087
                            -27.2913403 153.4183848
                            -27.2039578 153.4189391
                            -27.0267166 153.4673476
                            -27.0621757 153.3610112
                        </gml:posList>
                    </gml:LinearRing>
                </gml:exterior>
            </gml:Polygon>"""^^go:gmlLiteral ;

        geo:asKML """<Polygon>
                <outerBoundaryIs>
                    <LinearRing>
                        <coordinates>
                        153.3610112,-27.0621757
                        153.3658177,-27.1990606
                        153.421436,-27.3406573
                        153.4269292,-27.3607835
                        153.4434087,-27.3315078
                        153.4183848,-27.2913403
                        153.4189391,-27.2039578
                        153.4673476,-27.0267166
                        153.3610112,-27.0621757
                        </coordinates>
                    </LinearRing>
                </outerBoundaryIs>
            </Polygon>"""^^go:kmlLiteral ;

        geo:asGeoJSON """{
                "type": "Polygon",
                "coordinates": [[
                    [153.3610112, -27.0621757],
                    [153.3658177, -27.1990606],
                    [153.421436, -27.3406573],
                    [153.4269292, -27.3607835],
                    [153.4434087, -27.3315078],
                    [153.4183848, -27.2913403],
                    [153.4189391, -27.2039578],
                    [153.4673476, -27.0267166],
                    [153.3610112, -27.0621757]
                ]]
            }"""^^geo:geoJSONLiteral ;

        geo:asDGGS """<https://w3id.org/dggs/auspix> CELLLIST ((R8346031 R8346034 R8346037
            R83460058 R83460065 R83460068 R83460072 R83460073 R83460074 R83460075 R83460076
            R83460077 R83460078 R83460080 R83460081 R83460082 R83460083 R83460084 R83460085
            R83460086 R83460087 R83460088 R83460302 R83460305 R83460308 R83460320 R83460321
            R83460323 R83460324 R83460326 R83460327 R83460332 R83460335 R83460338 R83460350
            R83460353 R83460356 R83460362 R83460365 R83460380 R83460610 R83460611 R83460612
            R83460613 R83460614 R83460615 R83460617 R83460618 R83460641 R83460642 R83460644
            R83460645 R83460648 R83460672 R83460686 R83463020 R83463021 R834600487 R834600488
            R834600557 R834600558 R834600564 R834600565 R834600566 R834600567 R834600568
            R834600571 R834600572 R834600573 R834600574 R834600575 R834600576 R834600577
            R834600578 R834600628 R834600705 R834600706 R834600707 R834600708 R834600712
            R834600713 R834600714 R834600715 R834600716 R834600717 R834600718 R834601334
            R834601335 R834601336 R834601337 R834601338 R834601360 R834601361 R834601363
            R834601364 R834601366 R834601367 R834601600 R834601601 R834601603 R834601606
            R834601630 R834601633 R834603220 R834603221 R834603223 R834603224 R834603226
            R834603227 R834603250 R834603251 R834603253 R834603256 R834603280 R834603283
            R834603510 R834603511 R834603512 R834603513 R834603514 R834603515 R834603516
            R834603517 R834603540 R834603541 R834603543 R834603544 R834603546 R834603547
            R834603570 R834603573 R834603576 R834603681 R834603682 R834603684 R834603685
            R834603687 R834603688 R834603810 R834603830 R834603831 R834603832 R834603833
            R834603834 R834603835 R834603836 R834603837 R834603860 R834603861 R834603863
            R834603864 R834603866 R834603867 R834606021 R834606022 R834606024 R834606025
            R834606028 R834606052 R834606055 R834606160 R834606161 R834606162 R834606164
            R834606165 R834606167 R834606168 R834606200 R834606203 R834606206 R834606230
            R834606233 R834606236 R834606260 R834606263 R834606266 R834606401 R834606402
            R834606405 R834606408 R834606432 R834606471 R834606472 R834606474 R834606475
            R834606477 R834606478 R834606500 R834606503 R834606506 R834606530 R834606533
            R834606536 R834606560 R834606563 R834606566 R834606712 R834606715 R834606718
            R834606750 R834606751 R834606752 R834606753 R834606754 R834606755 R834606757
            R834606758 R834606781 R834606782 R834606784 R834606785 R834606788 R834606800
            R834606803 R834606806 R834606807 R834606830 R834606831 R834606833 R834606834
            R834606835 R834606836 R834606837 R834606838 R834606870 R834606873 R834606874
            R834606876 R834606877 R834630122 R834630125 R834630226 R834630230 R834630231
            R834630232 R834630234 R834630235 R834630237 R834630238 R834630240 R834630241
            R834630242 R834630243 R834630244 R834630245 R834630246 R834630247 R834630261
            R834630262 R834630264 R834630265 R834630268 R834630270 R834630271 R834630273
            R834630276 R834630502))"""^^geo:dggsLiteral ;
    ] ;
.

C.2.  Example SPARQL Queries & Rules

This Section provides example data and then illustrates the use of GeoSPARQL functions and the application of rules with that data.

C.2.1.  Example Data

The following RDF data (Turtle format) encodes application-specific spatial data. The resulting spatial data is illustrated in the figure below. The RDF statements define the feature class my:PlaceOfInterest, and two properties are created for associating geometries with features: my:hasExactGeometry and my:hasPointGeometry. my:hasExactGeometry is designated as the default geometry for the my:PlaceOfInterest feature class.

All the following examples use the parameter values relation_family = Simple Features, serialization = WKT, and version = 1.0.

600

Figure C.1 — Illustration of spatial data

@prefix geo: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#> .
@prefix my: <http://example.org/ApplicationSchema#> .
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix sf: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/sf#> .

my:PlaceOfInterest a rdfs:Class ;
    rdfs:subClassOf geo:Feature .

my:A a my:PlaceOfInterest ;
    my:hasExactGeometry my:AExactGeom ;
    my:hasPointGeometry my:APointGeom .

my:B a my:PlaceOfInterest ;
    my:hasExactGeometry my:BExactGeom ;
    my:hasPointGeometry my:BPointGeom .

my:C a my:PlaceOfInterest ;
    my:hasExactGeometry my:CExactGeom ;
    my:hasPointGeometry my:CPointGeom .

my:D a my:PlaceOfInterest ;
    my:hasExactGeometry my:DExactGeom ;
    my:hasPointGeometry my:DPointGeom .

my:E a my:PlaceOfInterest ;
    my:hasExactGeometry my:EExactGeom .

my:F a my:PlaceOfInterest ;
    my:hasExactGeometry my:FExactGeom .

my:hasExactGeometry a rdf:Property ;
    rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasDefaultGeometry,
        geo:hasGeometry .

my:hasPointGeometry a rdf:Property ;
    rdfs:subPropertyOf geo:hasGeometry .

my:AExactGeom a sf:Polygon ;
    geo:asWKT """<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84>
                 Polygon((-83.6 34.1, -83.2 34.1, -83.2 34.5,
                 -83.6 34.5, -83.6 34.1))"""^^geo:wktLiteral.

my:APointGeom a sf:Point ;
    geo:asWKT """<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84>
                 Point(-83.4 34.3)"""^^geo:wktLiteral.

my:BExactGeom a sf:Polygon ;
    geo:asWKT """<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84>
                 Polygon((-83.6 34.1, -83.4 34.1, -83.4 34.3,
                 -83.6 34.3, -83.6 34.1))"""^^geo:wktLiteral.

my:BPointGeom a sf:Point ;
    geo:asWKT """<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84>
                 Point(-83.5 34.2)"""^^geo:wktLiteral.

my:CExactGeom a sf:Polygon ;
    geo:asWKT """<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84>
                 Polygon((-83.2 34.3, -83.0 34.3, -83.0 34.5,
                 -83.2 34.5, -83.2 34.3))"""^^geo:wktLiteral.

my:CPointGeom a sf:Point ;
    geo:asWKT """<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84>
                 Point(-83.1 34.4)"""^^geo:wktLiteral.

my:DExactGeom a sf:Polygon ;
    geo:asWKT """<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84>
                 Polygon((-83.3 34.0, -83.1 34.0, -83.1 34.2,
                 -83.3 34.2, -83.3 34.0))"""^^geo:wktLiteral.

my:DPointGeom a sf:Point ;
    geo:asWKT """<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84>
                 Point(-83.2 34.1)"""^^geo:wktLiteral.

my:EExactGeom a sf:LineString ;
    geo:asWKT """<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84>
                 LineString(-83.4 34.0, -83.3 34.3)"""^^geo:wktLiteral.

my:FExactGeom a sf:Point ;
    geo:asWKT """<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84>
                 Point(-83.4 34.4)"""^^geo:wktLiteral.

C.2.2.  Example Queries

This Section illustrates the use of GeoSPARQL functions through a series of example queries.

C.2.2.1.  All features that a given feature contains

Find all features that feature my:A contains, where spatial calculations are based onmy:hasExactGeometry.

PREFIX my: <http://example.org/ApplicationSchema#>
PREFIX geo: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#>
PREFIX geof: <http://www.opengis.net/def/function/geosparql/>

SELECT ?f
WHERE {
    my:A my:hasExactGeometry ?aGeom .
    ?aGeom geo:asWKT ?aWKT .
    ?f my:hasExactGeometry ?fGeom .
    ?fGeom geo:asWKT ?fWKT .

    FILTER (
        geof:sfContains(?aWKT, ?fWKT)&&!sameTerm(?aGeom, ?fGeom)))

Result:

?f
my:B
my:F

C.2.2.2.  All features within bounding box

Find all features that are within a transient bounding box geometry, where spatial calculations are based onmy:hasPointGeometry.

PREFIX my: <http://example.org/ApplicationSchema#>
PREFIX geo: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#>
PREFIX geof: <http://www.opengis.net/def/function/geosparql/>

SELECT ?f
WHERE {
    ?f my:hasPointGeometry ?fGeom .
    ?fGeom geo:asWKT ?fWKT .
    FILTER (
        geof:sfWithin(
            ?fWKT,
            "<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84>
            Polygon ((-83.4 34.0, -83.1 34.0,
                        -83.1 34.2, -83.4 34.2,
                        -83.4 34.0))"
^^geo:wktLiteral
        ))}

Result:

?f
my:D

C.2.2.3.  All features touching the union of two features

Find all features that touch the union of feature my:A and feature my:D, where computations are based onmy:hasExactGeometry.

PREFIX my: <http://example.org/ApplicationSchema#>
PREFIX geo: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#>
PREFIX geof: <http://www.opengis.net/def/function/geosparql/>

SELECT ?f
WHERE {
    ?f my:hasExactGeometry ?fGeom .
    ?fGeom geo:asWKT ?fWKT .
    my:A my:hasExactGeometry ?aGeom .
    ?aGeom geo:asWKT ?aWKT .
    my:D my:hasExactGeometry ?dGeom .
    ?dGeom geo:asWKT ?dWKT .
    FILTER (
        geof:sfTouches(
            ?fWKT,
            geof:union(?aWKT, ?dWKT)))}

Result:

?f
my:C

C.2.2.4.  Three closest features to a feature

Find the 3 closest features to feature my:C, where computations are based onmy:hasExactGeometry.

PREFIX uom: <http://www.opengis.net/def/uom/OGC/1.0/>
PREFIX my: <http://example.org/ApplicationSchema#>
PREFIX geo: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#>
PREFIX geof: <http://www.opengis.net/def/geosparql/function>

SELECT ?f
WHERE {
    my:C my:hasExactGeometry ?cGeom .
    ?cGeom geo:asWKT ?cWKT .
    ?f my:hasExactGeometry ?fGeom .
    ?fGeom geo:asWKT ?fWKT .
    FILTER (?fGeom != ?cGeom)}
ORDER BY ASC (geof:distance(?cWKT, ?fWKT, uom:metre))
LIMIT 3

Result:

?f
my:A
my:D
my:E

C.2.2.5.  Maximum and mimimum coordinates of a set of geometries

Find the maximum and minimum coordinates of a given set of geometries.

PREFIX geo: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#>
PREFIX geof: <http://www.opengis.net/def/function/geosparql/>

SELECT ?minX ?minY ?minZ ?maxX ?maxY ?maxZ
WHERE {
    BIND ("<http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84>
            Polygon Z((-83.4 34.0 0, -83.1 34.0 1,
                        -83.1 34.2 1, -83.4 34.2 1,
                        -83.4 34.0 0))"
^^geo:wktLiteral) AS ?testgeom)
    BIND(geof:minX(?testgeom) AS ?minX)
    BIND(geof:maxX(?testgeom) AS ?maxX)
    BIND(geof:minY(?testgeom) AS ?minY)
    BIND(geof:maxY(?testgeom) AS ?maxY)
    BIND(geof:maxZ(?testgeom) AS ?maxZ)
    BIND(geof:minZ(?testgeom) AS ?minZ)}

Result:

?minX?minY?minZ?maxX?maxY?maxZ
-83.434.00-83.134.21

C.2.3.  Example Rule Application

This section illustrates the query transformation strategy for implementing GeoSPARQL rules.

C.2.3.1.  All features or geometries overlapping with another feature

Find all features or geometries that overlap featuremy:A.

Original Query:

PREFIX geo: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#>

SELECT ?f
WHERE { ?f geo:sfOverlaps my:A }

Transformed Query (application of transformation rule geor:sfOverlaps):

PREFIX my: <http://example.org/ApplicationSchema#>
PREFIX geo: <http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#>
PREFIX geof: <http://www.opengis.net/def/function/geosparql/>

SELECT ?f
WHERE {{# check for asserted statement
        ?f geo:sfOverlaps my:A }
    UNION
    {# feature – feature
        ?f geo:hasDefaultGeometry ?fGeom .
        ?fGeom geo:asWKT ?fSerial .
        my:A geo:hasDefaultGeometry ?aGeom .
        ?aGeom geo:asWKT ?aSerial .
        FILTER (geof:sfOverlaps(?fSerial, ?aSerial))}
    UNION
    {# feature – geometry
        ?f geo:hasDefaultGeometry ?fGeom .
        ?fGeom geo:asWKT ?fSerial .
        my:A geo:asWKT ?aSerial .
        FILTER (geof:sfOverlaps(?fSerial, ?aSerial))}
    UNION
    {# geometry – feature
        ?f geo:asWKT ?fSerial .
        my:A geo:hasDefaultGeometry ?aGeom .
        ?aGeom geo:asWKT ?aSerial .
        FILTER (geof:sfOverlaps(?fSerial, ?aSerial))}
    UNION
    {# geometry – geometry
        ?f geo:asWKT ?fSerial .
        my:A geo:asWKT ?aSerial .
        FILTER (geof:sfOverlaps(?fSerial, ?aSerial))}

Result:

?f
my:D
my:DExactGeom
my:E
my:EExactGeom

C.2.4.  Example Geometry Serialization Conversion Functions

For the geometry literal values in C.1.2.4 Geometry Serializations:

Application of the function geof:asWKT to the GML, KML, GeoJSON and DGGS literals should return WKT literal and similarly for each of the other conversion methods, geof:asGML, geof:asKML, geof:asGeoJSON & geof:asDGGS.


Annex D
(informative)
Usage of SHACL shapes

D.0. Overview

This Annex provides guidance on the usage of the SHACL shapes included with GeoSPARQL 1.1.

The Shapes Constraint Language SHACL allows the specification of constraints on RDF data, phrased as a set of conditions modeled in “Shape” graphs.

In GeoSPARQL 1.1, SHACL Shapes area defined in such a way that they validate anticipated graph structures expected by Requirements defined in the standard. Users may validate a given RDF document claiming conformance to GeoSPARQL 1.1 by using these Shapes and use the validation results to correct any mistakes.

D.1.  Tools

SHACL Shapes provided with GeoSPARQL are used to verify the graph structure of GeoSPARQL graphs. There are several SHACL tools that one can using to validate data using this Shapes information:

Validators produce error messages and warnings based on the SHACL standard’s defined reporting structure.

D.2.  Scope of SHACL Shapes provided with GeoSPARQL

The SHACL Shapes defined in the GeoSPARQL 1.1 standard all target the verification of specific graph structures, but only in very few cases validate the content of literal types. In particular, the following attributes of the graph are validated:

  • Proper usage of GeoSPARQL classes: These Shapes check for a proper usage of instances of GeoSPARQL classes. For example, we check that instances of collection classes should at least have one element and that instances of Geometry classes should at least have one serilization to avoid creating graphs which contain nodes without necessary information.

  • Geometry property consistency: Certain checks are applied for properties describing geometries. For example we check dimensionality properties for corresponding values.

  • Rudimentary checks of literal contents: The SHACL Shapes defined in this standard do not substitute a verification of literal contents by validators of the respective data formats. However, they define checks using regular expressions to detect a falsely formatted geospatial literal. For example, if a GeoJSON literal is declared using its literal type, a SHACL shape will check for curly brackets to be present (as they are part of the JSON specification).

D.3.  Table of SHACL Shapes

Table D.1 — Alignment: GeoSPARQL SHACL Shapes

SHACL Shape IDSeverityTest purposeRequirements tested
Shape 1aViolationEach node with an incoming geo:hasGeometry, or a specialization of it, should have at minimum one outgoing relation that is either geo:hasSerialization, or a specialization of it.[_req_geometry-extension_feature-properties], Requirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Shape 1bViolationEach node with an incoming geo:hasGeometry, or a specialization of it, can have a maximum of one outgoing geo:asWKT relation.Requirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-propertiesRequirement 18: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-wkt-literal
Shape 1cViolationEach node with an incoming geo:hasGeometry, or a specialization of it, can have a maximum of one outgoing geo:asGML relation.Requirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-propertiesRequirement 23: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-gml-literal
Shape 1dViolationEach node with an incoming geo:hasGeometry, or a specialization of it, can have a maximum of one outgoing geo:asGeoJSON relation.Requirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-propertiesRequirement 28: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-geojson-literal
Shape 1eViolationEach node with an incoming geo:hasGeometry, or a specialization of it, can have a maximum of one outgoing geo:asKML relation.Requirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-propertiesRequirement 33: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-as-kml-literal
Shape 2ViolationEach node with one or more outgoing relations that are either geo:hasSerialization, or a specialization of it, should have at least one incoming geo:hasGeometry relation or a specialization of it.Requirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Shape 3a-cViolationA node that has an incoming geo:hasGeometry property, or specialization of it, cannot have an outgoing geo:hasGeometry property, or a specialization of, it at the same time (a geo:Feature cannot be a geo:Geometry at the same time)[_req_geometry-extension_feature-properties]
Shape 4ViolationThe target of a geo:hasSerialization property, or a specialization of, it should be an RDF literalRequirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Shape 5ViolationThe target of a geo:asWKT property should be an RDF literal with datatype geo:wktLiteralRequirement 14: /req/geometry-extension/wkt-literal
Shape 6ViolationThe target of a geo:asGML property should be an RDF literal with datatype geo:gmlLiteralRequirement 20: /req/geometry-extension/gml-literal
Shape 7ViolationThe target of a geo:asGeoJSON property should be an RDF literal with datatype geo:geoJSONLiteralRequirement 25: /req/geometry-extension/geojson-literal
Shape 8ViolationThe target of a geo:asKML property should be an RDF literal with datatype geo:kmlLiteralRequirement 30: /req/geometry-extension/kml-literal
Shape 9ViolationA geo:Geometry node should have a maximum of one outgoing geo:coordinateDimension propertyRequirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Shape 10ViolationA geo:Geometry node should have a maximum of one outgoing geo:dimension propertyRequirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Shape 11ViolationA geo:Geometry node should have a maximum of one outgoing geo:isEmpty propertyRequirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Shape 12ViolationA geo:Geometry node should have a maximum one outgoing geo:isSimple propertyRequirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Shape 13ViolationA geo:Geometry node should have maximum of one outgoing geo:spatialDimension propertyRequirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Shape 14aViolationA geo:Geometry node should have maximum of one outgoing geo:hasSpatialResolution propertyRequirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Shape 14bViolationA geo:Geometry node should have maximum of one outgoing geo:hasSpatialAccuracy propertyRequirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Shape 14cViolationA geo:Geometry node should have maximum of one outgoing geo:hasMetricSpatialAccuracy propertyRequirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Shape 14dViolationA geo:Geometry node should have maximum of one outgoing geo:hasMetricSpatialResolution propertyRequirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Shape 15ViolationThe content of an RDF literal with an incoming geo:asWKT relation must conform to a well-formed WKT string, as defined by its official specification (Simple Features Access)Requirement 14: /req/geometry-extension/wkt-literal
Shape 16ViolationThe content of an RDF literal with an incoming geo:asWKT relation must conform to a well-formed WKT string, as defined by its official specification (Simple Features Access)Requirement 20: /req/geometry-extension/gml-literal
Shape 17ViolationThe content of an RDF literal with an incoming geo:asGeoJSON relation must conform to a well-formed GeoJSON geometry string, as defined by its official specificationRequirement 25: /req/geometry-extension/geojson-literal
Shape 18ViolationThe content of an RDF literal with an incoming geo:asKML relation must conform to a well-formed KML geometry XML string, as defined by its official specificationRequirement 30: /req/geometry-extension/kml-literal
Shape 20ViolationIf both geo:dimension and geo:coordinateDimension properties are asserted, the value of geo:dimension should be less than or equal to the value of geo:coordinateDimensionRequirement 13: /req/geometry-extension/geometry-properties
Shape 21aViolationAn instance of geo:FeatureCollection should have at least one outgoing rdfs:member relationRequirement 5: /req/core/feature-collection-class
Shape 21bViolationAn instance of geo:FeatureCollection should only have outgoing rdfs:member going to geo:Feature instancesRequirement 5: /req/core/feature-collection-class
Shape 22aViolationAn instance of geo:GeometryCollection should have at least one outgoing rdfs:member relation[_req_core_geometry-collection-class]
Shape 22bViolationAn instance of geo:GeometryCollection should only have outgoing rdfs:member relations to geo:Geometry instances[_req_core_geometry-collection-class]
Shape 23aViolationAn instance of geo:SpatialObjectCollection should have at least one outgoing rdfs:member relationRequirement 4: /req/core/spatial-object-collection-class
Shape 23bViolationAn instance of geo:SpatialObjectCollection should only have outgoing rdfs:member relations going to geo:SpatialObject instances, or subclasses of themRequirement 4: /req/core/spatial-object-collection-class

Annex E
(informative)
Alignments

E.0. Overview

This Annex provides alignments of GeoSPARQL to other well known ontologies that are either commonly used with GeoSPARQL or could be.

The prefixes used for the ontologies mapped to in all following sections are given in the following table.

Table E.1 — Alignment: Namespaces

as:https://www.w3.org/ns/activitystreams#
dcterms:http://purl.org/dc/terms/
geo:http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#
geom:http://geovocab.org/geometry#
gn:https://www.geonames.org/ontology#
juso:http://rdfs.co/juso/
lgd:http://linkedgeodata.org/ontology/
locn:https://www.w3.org/ns/locn
obo:http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/
osm:https://w3id.org/openstreetmap/terms#
osmm:https://www.openstreetmap.org/meta/
osmt:https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Key:
pos:http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#
prov:http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#
rdf:http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs:http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
sdo:https://schema.org
sosa:http://www.w3.org/ns/sosa/
spatialuk:http://data.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/ontology/spatialrelations/
spatialukgeom:http://data.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/ontology/geometry/
spatial:http://geovocab.org/spatial#
ssn:http://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/
time:http://www.w3.org/2006/time#
wdt:http://www.wikidata.org/entity/

E.1.  ISA Programme Location Core Vocabulary (LOCN)

LOCN Source: https://www.w3.org/ns/locn

The LOCN specification provides notes on the use of GeoSPARQL literals (see https://www.w3.org/ns/locn#changes).

Table E.2 — Alignment: ISA Programme Location Core Vocabulary (LOCN)

From ElementMapping relationTo ElementNotes
geo:Featurerdfs:subClassOfdcterms:LocationLOCN states that dcterms:Location “represents any location, irrespective of size or other restriction”. As such, it can be considered as a superclass of geo:Feature.
locn:Addressrdfs:subClassOfgeo:FeatureAlthough LOCN does not explicitly indicate spatial or geometry properties for locn:Address, this class can be considered as a specialized form of a geo:Feature.
geo:Geometryrdfs:subClassOflocn:GeometryIn LOCN, class locn:Geometry “[…​] defines the notion of geometry at the conceptual level, and it shall be encoded by using different formats”. More precisely, its instances can be either literals or individuals. The GeoSPARQL’s class geo:Geometry is more narrowly defined, as its instances can only be individuals, and not literals.
geo:hasGeometryrdfs:subPropertyOflocn:geometryIn LOCN, the usage note to property locn:geometry states that “Depending on how a geometry is encoded, the range of this property may be one of the following: a literal […​], an instance of a geometry class […​], geocoded URIs […​]”. The GeoSPARQL’s property geo:hasGeometry is more narrowly defined, as it can only be used with instances of geo:Geometry, and not with literals.

E.2.  WGS84 Geo Positioning: an RDF vocabulary (POS)

POS Source: http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/

Table E.3 — Alignment: WGS84 Geo Positioning Vocabulary (POS)

From ElementMapping relationTo ElementNotes
geo:SpatialObjectowl:equivalentClasspos:SpatialThingBoth classes are unrestricted, essentially abstract classes
pos:Pointrdfs:subClassOfgeo:GeometryVia pos:Point rdfs:subClassOf pos:SpatialThing but since pos:Point usage notes indicates direct positioning, it is a form of geometry
pos:Pointowl:equivalentClasssf:Point
pos:lat_longrdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:hasSerializationA special datatype is not indicated for use with this property by POS, unlike GeoSPARQL’s geo:hasSerialization object literals
pos:locationrdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:hasGeometry

E.3.  W3C Activity Streams Vocabulary

AS Source: https://www.w3.org/TR/activitystreams-vocabulary/

Table E.4 — Alignment: W3C Activity Streams Vocabulary

From ElementMapping relationTo ElementNotes
as:Placeowl:equivalentClassgeo:FeatureAS places are only defined for point geometries
as:accuracyrdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:hasSpatialAccuracyAS expresses the accuracy in percent
as:altitudeThe altitude property can be expressed as a Z coordinate in GeoSPARQL-compatible literals
as:latituderdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:hasSerializationAS defines the range of this property as xsd:float
as:longituderdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:hasSerializationAS defines the range of this property as xsd:float

E.4.  Geonames Ontology (GN)

Geonames source: http://www.geonames.org/ontology/documentation.html

Table E.5 — Alignment: Geonames Vocabulary (GN)

From ElementMapping relationTo ElementNotes
gn:Featureowl:equivalentClassgeo:Feature
gn:GeonamesFeaturerdfs:subClassOfgeo:FeatureThe GN class is defined as “A feature described in geonames database…​”
geo:Featurerdfs:subClassOfgn:ClassThe GN class’ definition reads “A class of features”
gn:locatedInowl:equivalentPropertygeo:sfWithin
gn:nearbyrdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:sfDisjointA gn:nearby B means A is not within or touching B. The only close SF property is disjoint
gn:neighbourowl:equivalentPropertygeo:sfTouches

E.5.  NeoGeo Vocabulary

NeoGeo Source: http://geovocab.org/ / http://geovocab.org/doc/neogeo/

Table E.6 — Alignment: NeoGeo Vocabulary

From ElementMapping relationTo ElementNotes
spatial:Featureowl:equivalentClassgeo:Feature
spatial:Crdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:rcc8ecSub proerty not equivalent property since the NeoGeo property has more restrictive domain & range
spatial:DRrdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:rcc8dc
spatial:ECrdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:rcc8ec
spatial:EQrdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:rcc8eq
spatial:NTPPrdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:rcc8ntpp
spatial:NTPPirdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:rcc8ntppi
spatial:Ordfs:subPropertyOfgeo:sfOverlaps
spatial:Prdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:sfWithin
spatial:POrdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:rcc8po
spatial:PPrdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:sfWithin
spatial:PPirdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:sfContains
spatial:Pirdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:sfContains
spatial:TPPrdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:rcc8tpp
spatial:TPPirdfs:subPropertyOfgeo::rcc8tppi
geom:Geometryowl:equivalentClassgeo:Geometry
geom:BoundingBoxrdfs:subClassOfgeo:GeometryGeoSPARQL doesn’t have a BoundingBox class but has a generic Geometry class that is the range of the geo:hasBoundingBox property
geom:GeometryCollectionowl:equivalentClassgeo:GeometryCollection
geom:LineStringowl:equivalentClasssf:LineString
geom:LinearRingowl:equivalentClasssf:LinearRing
geom:MultiLineStringowl:equivalentClasssf:MultiLineString
geom:MultiPointowl:equivalentClasssf:MultiPoint
geom:MultiPolygonowl:equivalentClasssf:MultiPolygon
geom:Polygonowl:equivalentClasssf:Polygon
geom:Pointowl:equivalentClasssf:Point
geo:hasGeometryrdfs:subPropertyOfgeom:geometrygeo:hasGeometry has more restrictive domain
  • The geom:bbox property relates a Geometry to another Geometry and is thus not equivalent to GeoSPARQL’s Feature-to-Geometry geo:hasBoundingBox.

    • An equivalent to geo:bbox could be made using a geo:Feature with a geo:Geometry, indicated by geo:hasGeometry and a second, specialised Bounding Box geo:Geometry indicated with geo:hasBoundingBox

E.7.  Time Ontology in OWL (TIME)

TIME Source: https://www.w3.org/TR/owl-time/

There are no direct class or property correspondences between GeoSPARQL and TIME however class patterning is similar:

and

  • TIME uses properties such as time:inXSDDate to indicate the position of temporal entities on a temporal reference system

  • GeoSPARQL uses properties such as geo:asWKT to indicate the position of spatial entities (Geometries) on spatial reference systems

OWL TIME sets no domain for time:hasTime thus this property may be used with anything, including a GeoSPARQL geo:Feature so that a spatio-temporal Feature may be indicated like this:

:flooded-area-x
    a geo:Feature ;
    geo:hasGeometry [
        a geo:Geometry ;
        geo:asWKT "POLYGON (((...)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
    ] ;
    time:hasTime [
        a time:ProperInterval ;
        time:hasBeginning [
            time:inXSDDate "..."^^xsd:date ;
        ] ;
        time:hasEnd [
            time:inXSDDate "..."^^xsd:date ;
        ] ;
    ] ;
.

In the above example, :flooded-area-x is a spatio-temporal Feature that has both a GeoSPARQL spatial projection — a geo:Geometry — and a temporal projection — a time:ProperInterval which is a specialized form of time:TemporalEntity.

Another possible use of TIME with GeoSPARQL is to assign temporality to individual geo:Geometry instances. This is allowed given time:hasTime‘s open domain:

:flooded-area-x
    a geo:Feature ;
    geo:hasGeometry [
        a geo:Geometry ;
        geo:asWKT "POLYGON (((...)))"^^geo:wktLiteral ;
        time:hasTime [ ... ] ;
    ] ;
.

In contrast to the first example, :flooded-area-x is inferred to be a spatio-temporal Feature but since it is the Geometry of :flooded-area-x that has a temporality, it is possible to describe other Geometries of :flooded-area-x with other temporalities.

E.9.  Semantic Sensor Network Ontology (SSN)

SSN Source: https://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-ssn/

SSN and GeoSPARQL do not cover overlapping concerns directly and therefore there are no direct class or property correspondences between them, however SSN provides advice on the use of GeoSPARQL for location, see Section 7.1 (https://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-ssn/#x7-1-location):

GeoSPARQL …​ provides a flexible and relatively complete platform for geospatial objects, that fosters interoperability between geo-datasets. To do so, these entities can be declared as instances of geo:Feature and geometries can be assigned to them via the geo:hasGeometry property. In case of classes, e.g., specific features of interests such as rivers, these can be defined as subclasses of geo:Feature.

E.10.  DCMI Metadata Terms (DCTERMS)

DCTERMS Source: https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/dcmi-terms/

Table E.9 — Alignment: DCMI Metadata Terms (DCTERMS)

From ElementMapping relationTo ElementNotes
geo:Featurerdfs:subClassOfdcterms:LocationA Location is a “A spatial region or named place.”
geo:hasGeometryrdfs:subPropertyOfdcterms:spatialdcterms:spatial indicates the “Spatial characteristics of the resource”, thus it is a more general form of GeoSPARQL’s geo:hasGeometry which indicates geometry spatial information
  • dcterms:spatial: “Spatial characteristics of the resource”. The range of this property includes a dcterms:Location, so it is a property for indicating a geo:Feature, for which GeoSPARQL has no equivalent, but perhaps also for indicating a geo:Geometry, thus the subPropertyOf mapping above.

  • dcterms:coverage: “The spatial or temporal topic of the resource, spatial applicability of the resource, or jurisdiction under which the resource is relevant”. This is a more generic form of dcterms:spatial but, since there is no direct GeoSPARQL mapping for dcterms:spatial, there is no direct mapping for this property either.

DCTERMS-related geometry literals, such as the DCMI Box Encoding Scheme13 and the DCMI Point Encoding Scheme14 could be indicated as GeoSPARQL geometry literals if a literal datatype were created for each. For example, the DCMI Point Encoding Scheme example of “The highest point in Australia” with the literal value east=148.26218; north=-36.45746; elevation=2228; name=Mt. Kosciusko might be encoded in GeoSPARQL like this:

:mt-kosciusko
    a geo:Feature ;
    geo:hasGeometry [
        a geo:Geometry ;
        geo:hasSerialization "east=148.26218; north=-36.45746; elevation=2228; name=Mt. Kosciusko"^^ex:dcmiPoint ;
    ] ;
.

E.11.  The Provenance Ontology (PROV)

PROV Source: https://www.w3.org/TR/prov-o/

From GeoSPARQL’s point of view, PROV is an “upper” ontology — one dealing with more abstract concepts — and only one of PROV’s three main classes of object — Entity, Activity & Agent — has direct relations to GeoSPARQL classes and that is Entity. This is because GeoSPARQL characterizes things — spatial objects — which are a kind of Entity but does not deal with events (Activity) or things with agency (Agent).

Table E.10 — Alignment: The Provenance Ontology (PROV)

From ElementMapping relationTo ElementNotes
geo:SpatialObjectCollectionrdfs:subClassOfprov:CollectionPROV’s class is a generic collection class and GeoSPARQL’s property is clearly a specialized form of it that may only consist of certain class instances (geo:SpatialObject)
geo:SpatialObjectrdfs:subClassOfprov:EntityAll SpatialObjects fit within PROV’s Entity’s definition: “An entity is a physical, digital, conceptual, or other kind of thing with some fixed aspects; entities may be real or imaginary.”
geo:Featurerdfs:subClassOfprov:LocationA Location “…​can be an identifiable geographic place (ISO 19112), but it can also be a non-geographic place such as a directory, row, or column” so seem to be wider in scope than GeoSPARQL’s Feature although a Feature could indeed be something such as a “directory, row, or column”
  • The PROV property prov:atLocation indicates prov:Location instances, which may be geo:Feature instances, but GeoSPARQL has no property to indicate a geo:Feature, so no mapping is possible. Indicating features is commonly done in ontologies which use GeoSPARQL but not within GeoSPARQL.

  • Derivative relations between GeoSPARQL objects could be modelled using PROV, for instance a BoundingBox may be indicated as having been derived from a Polygon like this:

:bounding-box-y prov:wasDerivedFrom :polygon-x .

E.12.  WikiData

Table E.11 — Alignment: WikiData

From ElementMapping relationTo ElementNotes
wdt:P625owl:equivalentPropertygeo:asWKTThe Wikidata description of this property labeled “coordinate location” note that “For Earth, please note that only WGS84 coordinating system is supported at the moment” but that is a system limit, not an ontological one
wdt:P3896owl:propertyChainAxiom(geo:hasGeometrygeo:asGeoJSON)This Wikidata property labeled “geoshape” indicated GeoJSON geometry literal content for a Feature, but it allows information other than just Geometry in the GeoJSON whereas GeoSPARQL does not.
wdt:P3096owl:propertyChainAxiom(geo:hasGeometrygeo:asKML)This Wikidata property labeled “KML File” links to a KML file which is related to the respective instance. This may not be the same representation as in GeoSPARQL, as GeoSPARQL KML literals only encode the geometry part of a KML.
wd:Q82794rdfs:subClassOfgeo:FeatureThe Wikidata class is labeled “geographic region” and thus is a subclass of the more general geo:Feature. There are likely many other classes in Wikidata that could be interpreted as subclasses of geo:Feature
wd:Q618123owl:equivalentClassgeo:FeatureThe Wikidata class is labeled “geographical feature” and thus corresponds to geo:Feature.
wd:Q25404640owl:equivalentClassgeo:SpatialObjectThe Wikidata class is labeled “spatial object” and thus corresponds to geo:SpatialObject.
wdt:P150rdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:sfContainsThe Wikidata property is labeled “contains administrative territorial entity” but also alternatively labeled “contains”, “has districts” and others. There are likely many other specialized forms of geo:sfContains and geo:sfWithin in Wikidata
geo:sfWithinrdfs:subPropertyOfwdt:P361The Wikidata property is labeled “part of” and is sometimes used to indicate Feature parthood. There are likely other parthood properties like this in Wikipedia that may also be used as superproperties of GeoSPARQL feature relations properties. The Wikidata inverse is wdt:Q65964571 “has part”
geo:sfContainsrdfs:subPropertyOfwd:Q65964571The property labeled “has part” is the inverse of wdt:P361 (see above)
wdt:P131rdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:sfContainsThe Wikidata property is labeled “located in the administrative territorial entity” and is essentially the inverse of wdt:P150 (described above)
wdt:P706rdfs:subPropertyOfgeo:sfWithinThe Wikidata property is labeled “located in/on physical feature” and is indicated for use with a “(geo)physical feature” and not to be used for administrative features where wdt:P131 (see above) should be
wdt:P4688rdfs:subClassOfgeo:FeatureThe Wikidata class is labeled “geomorphological unit” and is one of many Wikidata feature classes that could be expressed as a subclass of geo:Feature. More specialized geological unit examples are wd:Q5107 “continent” and wdt:P4552 “mountain range”.
wdt:P2046owl:equivalentPropertygeo:hasAreaThe Wikidata property is labeled “area”. It indicates a microformat — NUMBER + SPACE + ALLOWED_UNIT_LABEL — with a fixed set of ALLOWED_UNIT_LABELs to present values and units of measure.

E.13.  OpenStreetMap Ontologies

There are several approaches to make OpenStreetMap data accessible in the Linked Open Data cloud.

E.13.1.  LinkedGeoData

LinkedGeoData emerged from a research project connecting OpenStreetMap representations to an ontology model. In this model, specific values of OpenStreetMap tags, e.g. the values of amenity tags are converted to owl:Class representations using an automated process. Every class defined in this way represented a geo:Feature and is linked to either a Geometry or a latitude longitude representation. Hence, every linked geodata class can be considered a geo:Feature in the sense of GeoSPARQL.

Table E.12 — Alignment: LinkedGeoData

From ElementMapping relationTo ElementNotes
Any LGD Classrdfs:subClassOfgeo:FeatureAny class defined in the LinkedGeoData ontology is a subclass of geo:Feature

E.13.2.  OpenStreetMap RDF (Sophox)

https://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Sophox#How_OSM_data_is_stored

Table E.13 — Alignment: OpenStreetMap RDF (Sophox)

From ElementMapping relationTo ElementNotes
osmm:locowl:equivalentPropertygeo:asWKTThe OpenStreetMap RDF property osmm:loc includes WKTliterals which depending on the type of the subject instance describe an OSM node or the centroid of a way or OSM relation
osmm:type ‘n’owl:equivalentClasssf:PointThe OpenStreetMap RDF property osmm:type with value ‘n’ describes an OSM Node which is equivalent to a sf:Point
osmm:type ‘w’owl:equivalentClasssf:LineStringThe OpenStreetMap RDF property osmm:type with value ‘w’ describes an OSM Way which is equivalent to a sf:LineString
osmm:type ‘r’owl:equivalentClasssf:GeometryCollectionThe OpenStreetMap RDF property osmm:type with value ‘r’ describes an OSM relation Way which is equivalent to a sf:GeometryCollection
osmm:hasowl:equivalentPropertygeo:sfContains, geo:ehContains, geo:rcc8ntppThe OpenStreetMap RDF property osmm:has describes that a relation contains a way or that a way contains a node
osmm:isClosed trueowl:equivalentClasssf:PolygonThe OpenStreetMap RDF property osmm:isClosed indicates whether a Way is closed, i.e. if it constitutes a Polygon
osmm:isClosed falseowl:equivalentClasssf:LineStringThe OpenStreetMap RDF property osmm:isClosed indicates whether a Way is closed, i.e. if it constitutes a Polygon

E.13.3.  Routable Tiles Ontology

https://github.com/openplannerteam/routable-tiles-ontology

Table E.14 — Alignment: Routable Tiles Ontology

From ElementMapping relationTo ElementNotes
osm:Elementowl:equivalentClassgeo:GeometryThe class osm:Element is equivalent to a geo:Geometry
osm:Nodeowl:equivalentClasssf:PointThe class osm:Node is equivalent to a sf:Point
osm:Wayowl:equivalentClasssf:LineStringThe class osm:Way is equivalent to a sf:LineString
osm:Relationowl:equivalentClasssf:GeometryCollectionThe class osm:Relation is equivalent to a sf:GeometryCollection

E.14.  Ordnance Survey UK Spatial Ontology

http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/legacy/ontologies/spatialrelations.owl & http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/legacy/ontologies/geometry.owl

NOTE:    These two ontologies will be withdrawn during 2022.

The ontology authors note: “We are pleased to have contributed to the discussion some ten years ago but recognize that the subject area has moved on. We would not recommend people starting to relate to our ontology now, and we look forward to migrating to some more authoritative one in due course.”

Table E.15 — Alignment: Ordnance Survey UK Spatial Ontology

From ElementMapping relationTo ElementNotes
spatialuk:containsowl:equivalentPropertygeo:sfContains
spatialuk:disjointowl:equivalentPropertygeo:sfDisjoint
spatialuk:eastingowl:equivalentProperty-Distance in metres east of National Grid origin
spatialuk:equalsowl:equivalentPropertygeo:sfEquals
spatialuk:northingowl:equivalentProperty-Distance in metres north of National Grid origin
spatialuk:touchesowl:equivalentPropertygeo:sfTouches
spatialuk:withinowl:equivalentPropertygeo:sfWithin
spatialukgeom:AbstractGeometryowl:equivalentPropertygeo:Geometry
spatialukgeom:extentowl:equivalentPropertygeo:hasGeometryThe range of spatialukgeom:extent is constrained to 2D geometries
spatialukgeom:asGMLowl:equivalentPropertygeo:asGMLThe properties are equivalent, but the range of `spatialukgeom:asGML is more general: An rdf:XMLLiteral
  • spatialuk:easting describes a latitude coordinate east of the national UK grid and GeoSPARQL does not contain modelling of individual coordinate reference system elements

  • spatialuk:northing describes a longitude coordinate north of the national UK grid so, as above, has not GeoSPARQL equivalent

E.15.  CIDOC CRM Geo

CRMGeo Source: https://www.cidoc-crm.org/crmgeo/sites/default/files/CRMgeo1_2.pdf

Table E.16 — Alignment: CIDOC CRM Geo

From ElementMapping relationTo ElementNotes
cidoc:SP1_PhenomenalSpaceTimeVolumerdfs:subClassOfgeo:FeatureThe CIDOC CRMgeo class SP1_PhenomenalSpaceTimeVolume is a subclass of geo:Feature as described in the CRMgeo 1.2 specification document.
cidoc:SP2_PhenomenalPlacerdfs:subClassOfgeo:FeatureThe CIDOC CRMgeo class SP2_PhenomenalPlace is a subclass of geo:Feature as described in the CRMgeo 1.2 specification document.
cidoc:SP5_GeometricPlaceExpressionrdfs:subClassOfgeo:GeometryThe CIDOC CRMgeo class SP5_GeometricPlaceExpression is a subclass of geo:Geometry as described in the CRMgeo 1.2 specification document.
cidoc:SP6_DeclarativePlacerdfs:subClassOfgeo:GeometryThe CIDOC CRMgeo class SP6_DeclarativePlace is a subclass of geo:Geometry as described in the CRMgeo 1.2 specification document.
cidoc:SP7_DelcarativePlacerdfs:subClassOfgeo:GeometryThe CIDOC CRMgeo class SP7_DeclarativePlace is a subclass of geo:Geometry as described in the CRMgeo 1.2 specification document.
cidoc:SP10_DeclarativeTimeSpanrdfs:subClassOfgeo:GeometryThe CIDOC CRMgeo class SP10_DeclarativeTimeSpan is a subclass of geo:Geometry as described in the CRMgeo 1.2 specification document.
cidoc:SP14_TimeExpressionrdfs:subClassOfgeo:GeometryThe CIDOC CRMgeo class SP14_TimeExpression is a subclass of geo:Geometry as described in the CRMgeo 1.2 specification document.
cidoc:SP15_Geometryrdfs:subClassOfgeo:GeometryThe CIDOC CRMgeo class SP15_Geometry is a subclass of geo:Geometry as described in the CRMgeo 1.2 specification document.

E.16.  Basic Formal Ontology (BFO)

BFO Source: https://basic-formal-ontology.org/bfo-2020.html, and from there, an OWL ontology of BFO2020 at https://github.com/BFO-ontology/BFO-2020

Table E.17 — Alignment: Basic Formal Ontology (BFO)

From ElementMapping relationTo ElementNotes
geo:SpatialObjectrdfs:subClassOfobo:BFO_0000004 “independent continuant”BFO’s “independent continuant” is the superclass of “material entity” & “immaterial entity” which are mapped to Feature & Geometry respectively, so at least some independent continuants must be Spatial Objects
geo:Geometryrdfs:subClassOfobo:BFO_0000006 “spatial region”BFO’s “spatial region” class is described as a “spatial projection of a portion of spacetime” so Geometry appears to be a subclass of this as it’s “A coherent set of direct positions in space”
geo:Geometryrdfs:subClassOfobo:IAO_0000030 “information content entity”BFO’s “information content entity” class is described as “an entity that represents information about some other entity”, so Geometry appears to be subclass of this as well as “spatial region” since in GeoSPARQL, Geometry gives the details of the spatial projection of a Feature.
obo:BFO_0000040 “material entity”rdfs:subClassOfgeo:FeatureA BFO “material entity” is something that “has some portion of matter as continuant part” and some Features are such, however Features may be imaginary too
obo:BFO_0000029 “site”rdfs:subClassOfgeo:FeatureBFO’s sites either cover the same areas as, or have locations determined in relation to, material entities, so sites are Features but not necessarily the other way around
geo:hasGeometryrdfs:subPropertyOfobo:BFO_0000211 “occupies spatial region at all times”The BFO property links a thing that is not a spatial region to a spatial region, so it can be used as geo:hasGeometry is used when the thing is taken to be a geo:Feature and the spatial region a geo:Geometry. No GeoSPARQL temporality indicators mean mappings are eternal.
geo:hasGeometryrdfs:subPropertyOfobo:BFO_0000210 “occupies spatial region at some time”A transitive mapping from the mapping above. Temporal qualification can be used with GeoSPARQL, see the OWL TIME alignment.
geo:sfWithinrdfs:subPropertyOfobo:BFO_0000082 “located in at all times”The BFO property “located in at all times” is a super property of geo:sfWithin when the thing located in the spatial region are defined to both be instances of geo:Feature. Since GeoSPARQL natively supplies no temporal qualifiers, pure GeoSPARQL assertions are assumed to be eternal: “…​at all times”
geo:sfWithinrdfs:subPropertyOfobo:BFO_0000171 “located in at some time”A transitive mapping from the mapping above. Temporal qualification can be used with GeoSPARQL, see the OWL TIME alignment.
obo:BFO_0000066 “occurs in”rdfs:rangegeo:SpatialObjectThe BFO property relates a temporal activity to a spatial region but since GeoSPARQL has no notion of events, no mapping to this property can be made. However, BFO indicates this property should be used with a BFO “spatial region” (geo:Geometry) range value but from GeoSPARQL’s point of view, it could also be used with a geo:Feature where the “in” would be taken to be within the feature’s geometry, so the superclass of feature and geometry is given as the range
obo:BFO_0000216 “spatially projects onto at some time”rdfs:rangegeo:SpatialObjectThe reasoning is the same as for “occurs in”
  • BFO distinguishes between continuants & occurrants, which spatial region & spatiotemporal region are subclasses of, respectively. GeoSPARQL has no handling of temporality, so cannot yet map to any continuants

    • a future version of GeoSPARQL that handled spatio-temporal Features could perhaps claim that geo:Feature is a rdfs:subClassOfobo:BFO_0000011 “spatiotemporal region”, however inconsistencies from this mapping will occur due to the current Feature/”spatial region” mapping above and this will need to be handled


Annex F
(informative)
CQL / GeoSPARQL Mapping

F.0. Overview

This annex presents a mapping between the Common Query Language(CQL) [CQLDEF] and GeoSPARQL as well as generic SPARQL SPARQL. This is likely of relevance to the delivery of GeoSPARQL data via systems such as the OGC’s Web Feature Service [WFS] and OGC API Features [OGCAPIF] which implement CQL.

F.1.  Accessing spatial Features in a SPARQL endpoint

Spatial Features accessed via SPARQL endpoints SPARQLPROT are, as defined in the GeoSPARQL standard, instances of the OWL class geo:Feature or of subclasses of it. They may have one or more geo:hasGeometry properties indicating geo:Geometry instances and other properties related to the Feature. They may also be grouped into geo:FeatureCollection instances where geo:FeatureCollection is a new class in GeoSPARQL 1.1, specifically for the description of collections of geo:Feature instances.

The following example SPARQL query retrieves all Features within the Feature Collection with the IRI ex:x within a given SPARQL endpoint.

PREFIX ex: <http://example.com/>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>

SELECT ?fcollection ?item ?rel ?val ?geom
WHERE {
  ex:x rdfs:member ?item .
  ?item rdfs:subClassOf* geo:Feature .}

GeoSPARQL’s geo:FeatureCollection definition requires that geo:Feature instances are to be linked to the Collection by use of the rdf:member property. No inverse property is defined.

NOTE:    Some CQL-implementing systems, such as OGC API, have fixed notions of Feature Collections and require that Features be members of exactly one Feature Collection. There is no such restriction in GeoSPARQL: Features may be members of one or more Feature Collections.

An extension to the above can retrieve any Geometry serializations for the Features within Feature Collection ex:x:

PREFIX ex: <http://example.com/>
PREFIX rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>

SELECT ?fcollection ?item ?rel ?val ?geom
WHERE {
  ex:x rdfs:member ?item .
  ?item rdfs:subClassOf* geo:Feature .

  OPTIONAL {
    ?item geo:hasGeometry/geo:hasSerialization ?geom
  }}

Some additional concerns for GeoSPARQL / CQL or OGC API Features Feature Collections mappings are:

  • APIs may need more information about the geo:FeatureCollection instance for correct handling, in particular, an identifier and perhaps a label. If the back-end data store also contains information for the geo:FeatureCollection instance then this may be queried for. If not, the API might need to create such data

    • One particular scenario observed is that OGC APIs require token-like identifiers for Feature Collections and GeoSPARQL IRIs, or their parts, may not be able to be used for such. In these cases, the RDF property dcterms:identifier may be used to store appropriate token-like identifiers

  • Perhaps only data in a certain namespace is of interest. The solution is to apply FILTER expressions to the SPARQL query

F.2.  Mappings from CQL2 statements to GeoSPARQL queries

This section presents lists of equivalences between Common Query Language (CQL2) [CQLDEF] statements and GeoSPARQL statements.

F.2.1.  Query Parameters

Several query parameters may be given as parameters to the HTTP request of CD-implementing systems, such as the OGC API Features service. These parameters have an influence on the SPARQL query to be executed for the retrieval of a FeatureCollection to be exposed using an OGC API Features service.

Table F.1 — CQL To GeoSPARQL Mappings: Query Parameters

Query ParameterExampleSPARQL ExpressionExampleComment
limitlimit=5LIMITLIMIT 5
offsetoffset=10OFFSETOFFSET 10
bboxbbox= 160.6,-55.95,-170,-25.89FILTER( geo:sfIntersects())FILTER(geo:sfIntersects(?geom, "POLYGON( (160.6 -55.95,160.6 -25.89, -170 -25.89, -170 -55.95, 160.6 -55.95))"^^geo:wktLiteral) )WKT does not define a type boundingbox, therefore a bbox is converted to a Polygon
datetimedatetime= 2018-02-12 T23%3A20%3A52Z--GeoSPARQL doesn’t detail temporal aspects of data. Filtering data using RDF temporal properties may be achieved using basic SPARQL queries and also OWL TIME TIME

F.2.2.  Literal Values

CQL2 defines literal values for a variety of datatypes. The following table shows the equivalences of these values in RDF which may be used in any GeoSPARQL query.

Table F.2 — CQL To GeoSPARQL Mappings: Literal Values

CQL2 literalExamples(Geo)SPARQL literalExamples
String“This is a string”xsd:string“This is a string”^^xsd:string
Number-100 3.14159xsd:int, xsd:integer, xsd:double“-100”^^xsd:integer “3.14159”^^xsd:double
Booleantrue falsexsd:boolean“true”^^xsd:boolean “false”^^xsd:boolean
Spatial Geometry (WKT)POINT(1 1)WKT Literal“POINT(1 1)”^^geo:wktLiteral
Spatial Geometry (JSON){”type”: “Point”, “coordinates”:[1,1]}GeoJSON Literal“{”type”: “Point”, “coordinates”:[1,1]}”^^geo:geoJSONLiteral
Temporal Literal1969-07-20 1969-07-20T20:17:40Zxsd:date, xsd:dateTime, xsd:dateTimeStamp“1969-07-20”^^xsd:date “1969-07-20T20:17:40Z”^^xsd:dateTime

F.2.3.  Property references

CQL2 allows the referencing of properties in a Feature Collection it is targeting for filtering. A property reference is converted to a triple pattern as shown in the following example. A SPARQL variable ?item is assumed to represent the Feature Collection.

Table F.3 — CQL To GeoSPARQL Mappings: Property references

Property ReferenceTriple pattern
name=”OGC”?item my:name "OGC"^^xsd:string
number=5?item my:number "5"^^xsd:integer
number>5?item my:number ?number . FILTER(?number>5)

F.2.4.  Comparison Predicates

CQL2 defines comparison predicates to compare two scalar expressions. A comparison predicate is converted to a triple pattern as shown in the following example. A SPARQL variable ?item is assumed to represent the Feature Collection.

Table F.4 — CQL To GeoSPARQL Mappings: Comparison Predicates

Comparison predicateTriple patternComment
name=”OGC”?item my:name "OGC"^^xsd:stringEquality statements can be converted to a triple pattern
number=5?item my:number "5"^^xsd:integer
number>5?item my:number ?number . FILTER(?number>5)Arithmetic comparisons (<,>,>=,⇐) are converted to filter expressions
number BETWEEN 5 AND 10?item my:number ?number . FILTER(?number>=5 && ?number⇐10)BETWEEN statements are converted to arithmetic expressions
name IN (“OGC”,”W3C”)?item my:name IN ("OGC", "W3C")IN statements may also be expressed using SPARQL VALUES statements
name IS NOT NULLEXISTS {?item my:name ?name }NOT NULL statements are converted to EXIST statements
name LIKE “OGC.”?item my:name ?name . FILTER(regex(?name, "OGC.", "i" ))LIKE statements are converted to SPARQL regex filters
INTERSECTS(geometry1, geometry2)FILTER(geof:sfIntersects(?geometry1,?geometry2))The INTERSECTS filter statement is converted to a GeoSPARQL FILTER statement

There is no direct GeoSPARQL equivalent to a CRS-based CQL filter, however certain GeoSPARQL geometry literals have explicity CRS/SRS information that may be filtered using SPARQL REGEX operators.

F.2.5.  Spatial Operators

GeoSPARQL includes equivalents of many CQL2 filter functions as can be seen in the table below.

Table F.5 — CQL To GeoSPARQL Mappings: Spatial Operators

CQL2 Filter ExpressionGeoSPARQL Filter Function
CONTAINS(geometry1,geometry2)FILTER(geof:sfContains(?geometry1,?geometry2))
CROSSES(geometry1,geometry2)FILTER(geof:sfCrosses(?geometry1,?geometry2))
DISJOINT(geometry1,geometry2)FILTER(geof:sfDisjoint(?geometry1,?geometry2))
EQUALS(geometry1,geometry2)FILTER(geof:sfEquals(?geometry1,?geometry2))
INTERSECTS(geometry1,geometry2)FILTER(geof:sfIntersects(?geometry1,?geometry2))
OVERLAPS(geometry1,geometry2)FILTER(geof:sfOverlaps(?geometry1,?geometry2))
TOUCHES(geometry1,geometry2)FILTER(geof:sfTouches(?geometry1,?geometry2))
WITHIN(geometry1,geometry2)FILTER(geof:sfWithin(?geometry1,?geometry2))

F.2.6.  Temporal Operators

Temporal operators are not part of the GeoSPARQL standard.

Table F.6 — CQL To GeoSPARQL Mappings: Temporal Operators

CQL2 Filter ExpressionGeoSPARQL Filter Function
beginTime AFTER 1969-07-16T13:32:00ZN/A
beginTime BEFORE 1969-07-16T13:32:00ZN/A
beginTime BEGINS 1969-07-16T13:32:00ZN/A
beginTime BEGUNBY 1969-07-16T13:32:00ZN/A
beginTime DURING 1969-07-16T13:32:00ZN/A
beginTime ENDEDBY 1969-07-16T13:32:00ZN/A
beginTime ENDS 1969-07-16T13:32:00ZN/A
beginTime MEETS 1969-07-16T13:32:00ZN/A
beginTime METBY 1969-07-16T13:32:00ZN/A
beginTime OVERLAPPEDBY 1969-07-16T13:32:00ZN/A
beginTime TCONTAINS 1969-07-16T13:32:00ZN/A
beginTime TEQUALS 1969-07-16T13:32:00ZN/A
beginTime TOVERLAPS 1969-07-16T13:32:00ZN/A

As noted above in Section F.2.1 Query Parameters, temporal filtering of RDF data via SPARQL queries is possible with standard SPARQL functions to compare date values (xsd:date, xsd:dateTime and xsd:dateTimeStamp literals) and OWL TIME TIME may be used to assert temporal relations between objects.

F.3.  Mappings from Simple Features for SQL

The following table maps the functions and properties from Simple Features for SQL [OGCSFACA]ISO 19125-1 to GeoSPARQL.

Table F.7 — CQL To GeoSPARQL Mappings: Simple Features for SQL

Simple Features for SQLGeoSPARQL EquivalentSince GeoSPARQLRelated Property AvailableSince GeoSPARQL
2.1.1.1 Basic Methods on Geometry
Dimension(): Doublegeof:dimension-geo:dimension1.0
GeometryType(): IntegerClass of geometry instance1.0N/A-
SRID(): Integergeof:getSRID1.0N/A-
Envelope(): Geometrygeof:envelope1.0geo:hasBoundingBox1.1
AsText(): Stringgeof:asWKT1.1geo:asWKT1.0
AsBinary(): BinaryN/A-N/A-
IsEmpty(): Integergeof:isEmpty-geo:isEmpty1.0
IsSimple(): Integergeof:isEmpty-geo:isSimple1.0
Boundary(): Geometrygeof:boundary1.0N/A-
2.1.1.2 Spatial Relations
Equals(anotherGeometry: Geometry): Integergeof:sfEquals1.0geo:sfEquals1.0
Disjoint(anotherGeometry: Geometry): Integergeof:sfDisjoint1.0geo:sfDisjoint1.0
Intersects(anotherGeometry: Geometry): Integergeof:sfIntersects1.0geo:sfIntersects1.0
Touches(anotherGeometry: Geometry): Integergeof:sfTouches1.0geo:sfTouches1.0
Crosses(anotherGeometry: Geometry): Integergeof:sfCrosses1.0geo:sfCrosses1.0
Within(anotherGeometry: Geometry): Integergeof:sfWithin1.0geo:sfWithin1.0
Contains(anotherGeometry: Geometry): Integergeof:sfContains1.0geo:sfContains1.0
Overlaps(anotherGeometry: Geometry): Integergeof:sfOverlaps1.0geo:sfOverlaps1.0
Relate(anotherGeometry: Geometry, IntersectionPatternMatrix: String): Integergeof:relate1.0N/A-
2.1.1.3 Spatial Analysis
Buffer(distance: Double): Geometrygeof:buffer1.0N/A-
ConvexHull(): Geometrygeof:convexHull1.0N/A-
Intersection(anotherGeometry: Geometry): Geometrygeof:intersection1.0N/A-
Union(anotherGeometry: Geometry): Geometrygeof:union1.0N/A-
Difference(anotherGeometry: Geometry): Geometrygeof:difference1.0N/A-
SymDifference(anotherGeometry: Geometry): Geome