The OGC IndoorGML standard provides a fundamental data model for representing indoor spaces as spatial, topological, and semantic features. The IndoorGML core module allows applications to extend the model with their semantic considerations. For example, the IndoorGML navigation module classifies the basic class of indoor spaces, cell spaces, into navigable or non-navigable spaces. Navigable spaces, in which users can move freely, are specified in two subclasses: transfer spaces (e.g. doors, entrances, hallways) and general spaces (e.g. rooms, terraces, lobbies), based on indoor navigation requirements. This discussion paper proposes an extension to the OGC IndoorGML core module to support new types of location-based services, such as autonomous driving robots, personal experience augmentation with augmented reality (AR) / virtual reality (VR), and facilities management, to understand activities and needs in indoor spaces. The proposed extension consists of three new indoor spaces to represent affordance spaces with structural, functional, and sensory characteristics by leveraging the multi-layered space representation of IndoorGML.
The following are keywords to be used by search engines and document catalogues.
ogcdoc, OGC, IndoorGML, indoor spaces, affordances, experience spaces, facility spaces, structure spaces, IFC, CityGML, IMDF, BIM
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. The Open Geospatial Consortium shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
Recipients of this document are requested to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent claims or other intellectual property rights of which they may be aware that might be infringed by any implementation of the standard set forth in this document, and to provide supporting documentation.
IV. Security considerations
No security considerations have been made for this document.
V. Submitting Organizations
The following organizations submitted this Document to the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC):
- National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
- The University of Seoul
- All for Land Inc.
- Pusan National University
All questions regarding this submission should be directed to the editors or the submitters:
|Kyong-Sook Kim||National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology|
|Taehoon Kim||National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology|
|Jiyeong Lee||The University of Seoul|
|In-Hye Park||The University of Seoul|
|Hye-Young Kang||All for Land Inc.|
|Ki-Joune Li||Pusan National University|
Extensions of IndoorGML 1.1 - Indoor Affordance Spaces
The scope of this OGC Discussion Paper is to propose an extended data model of affordance space for supporting human-agent interaction in indoor space. An agent can be any software, device, or system like a robot. Indoor agents are functional units that perform tasks of navigation and other tasks on behalf of human behavior without any intervention or direct interaction in indoor spaces. The indoor agent needs to understand the role and physical setting of each indoor space to carry out a task or provide a service in an indoor space where users can safely and efficiently continue their activities. Also, it can make the user experience more engaging. This document shows how to extend IndoorGML core and navigation modules for this interaction space between indoor agents and humans. In addition, the investigation of indoor features in existing indoor (and building) information models such as buildingSmart IFC, Esri ArcGIS Indoors, OGC CityGML, Apple and OGC IMDF is addressed. This discussion paper covers the following scopes:
A conceptual model to extend IndoorGML schema for indoor space with structural, functional, sensory affordance;
Mapping the model to existing standard building information models.
Figure 1 — Goal of the discussion paper
2. Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO: ISO 16739-1:2018, Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) for data sharing in the construction and facility management industries — Part 1: Data schema. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva (2018). https://www.iso.org/standard/70303.html
OGC® Indoor Geography Markup Language (IndoorGML) 1.1 (2020)
OGC City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) Part 1 : Conceptual Model Standard (2021)
Apple Inc.: OGC 20-094, Indoor Mapping Data Format. Open Geospatial Consortium (2021). https://docs.ogc.org/cs/20-094/index.html
3. Terms and definitions
This document uses the terms defined in OGC Policy Directive 49, which is based on the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, Rules for the structure and drafting of International Standards. In particular, the word “shall” (not “must”) is the verb form used to indicate a requirement to be strictly followed to conform to this document and OGC documents do not use the equivalent phrases in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.
This document also uses terms defined in the OGC Standard for Modular specifications (OGC 08-131r3), also known as the ‘ModSpec’. The definitions of terms such as standard, specification, requirement, and conformance test are provided in the ModSpec.
For the purposes of this document, the following additional terms and definitions apply.
3.1. experience space
space for user experience which interacts with the interactive objects
3.2. facility space
space to represent facility that physical installation or physical area that may be accessed and used
3.3. indoor agent
automated software, device, or system that performs a role in an indoor activity
3.4. structure space
space which physically or logically distinguishable and assembles part of a structure
3.5. user experience
person’s perceptions and responses resulting from the use and/or anticipated use of a product, system or service
(Source: ISO 9241-210:2010)
This section provides details and examples for any conventions used in the document. Examples of conventions are symbols, abbreviations, use of XML schema, or special notes regarding how to read the document.
4.1. Abbreviated terms
The following abbreviated terms are used in this discussion paper:
|CityGML||City Geographic Markup Language|
|CSI||Construction Specifications Institute|
|ESRI||Environmental Systems Research Institute|
|GML||Geography Markup Language|
|IndoorGML||Indoor Geographic Markup Language|
|IMDF||Indoor Mapping Data Format|
|IFC||Industry Foundation Classes|
|LOD||Level of Detail|
|OGC||Open Geospatial Consortium|
|OmniClass or OCCS||OmniClass™ Construction Classification System|
|POI||Points of Interest|
|UML||Unified Modeling Language|
5. Indoor affordance space module in IndoorGML
5.1. Space affordance
The technological innovations such as internet of things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), and robots have led to the emergence of new types of services and products that collaborate autonomously with humans. Location-based services (LBS) are adapting to the interconnection between the digital and physical worlds with 3D environments and become more ambient to human behavior in indoor as well as outdoor spaces. LBS will support humans as intelligent agents that will be more finely customized to assist or take on a larger share of human activities, such as personal navigation with augmented reality (AR)/ virtual reality (VR), evacuation simulation, remote control for automated facility management, and human-robot collaboration. These LBS require more rich information to describe space to understand the affordance of a space and to explore the interconnection between two spaces. A space is a unit of digital representation of the real world. Indoor space is defined as “space within one or multiple buildings consisting of architectural components such as entrances, corridors, rooms, doors, and stairs” by the OGC IndoorGML standard. Most human activity refers to indoor environments. According to the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) report, about 87% of human activity takes place indoors and about 6% is in enclosed vehicles . The term affordance was initially introduced in Ecology to describe the relational properties between an entity (a human or animal) and its environment . The concept of affordance is applied to the design of human-computer interaction as a possibility for action. This document defines affordance space as space that allows an agent to perceive its environment and take actions for matching its goals. An affordance space is represented by the conjunction space of structural affordance, functional affordance, and sensory affordance, as shown in Figure 2. This document discusses how to extend the OGC IndoorGML core model for representing indoor affordance spaces to support human-agent interaction and improve the usability of indoor spaces.